Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. u̯ei-, u̯eiə- : u̯ī-   'to wish, pursue, go for, reach towards; strong, violent'

Semantic Field(s): to Will, Wish, to Pursue, Purpose, Intention, Strong, Mighty, Powerful


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: wāþ n.fem pursuit; roving W7
Middle English: gayne n gain W7
rowein n rowen W7
violaten vb to violate W7
violent adj violent W7
English: gain n profit, increase AHD/W7
invite vb.trans to entice, offer incentive/inducement to AHD/W7
rowen n stubble field left unplowed AHD/W7
vim n vitality, robust energy/enthusiasm AHD/W7
violate vb.trans to break, disregard AHD/W7
violent adj re: extreme force/sudden intense activity AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Dutch: weide n meadow TLL
Old High German: weida n.fem hunting, fishing ASD
weidanōn vb to hunt for food W7
German: Weide n pasture LRC
North Germanic  
Icelandic: veiðr n.fem hunting, fishing ASD
Latin: invito, invitāre vb to invite, incite W7
violatus vb.ptc violated W7
violentus adj violent W7
violō, violāre vb to violate, offend, do violence to W7
vīs n.fem force, strength, power W7
Old French: gaaignier vb to till, earn, gain W7
regaïn n.masc aftermath W7
Old North French: rewain n.masc rowen W7
Middle French: gain n.masc gain W7
inviter vb to invite, incite W7
violent adj violent W7
Lithuanian: pavõjus n.masc danger LRC
Latvian: vieta n.fem place LRC
Old Church Slavonic: voi troops, army LRC
Homeric Greek: ἴς n.fem force, strength LS
Greek: ἀφίημι vb to send forth, throw down, permit, forgive LRC
ἵεμαι vb.dep to desire LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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