Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. u̯eis-   'to flow (away); ooze, virus, poison'

Semantic Field(s): to Flow, Mud, Mire, Sick; Sickness


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: wāse n.fem ooze ASD
wāsend n.masc weasand ASD/IEW
weosule, wesle n.fem weasel W7
Middle English: viscouse adj viscous W7
wesand n weasand W7
wesele n weasel W7
wose n ooze W7
English: bison n large shaggy bovine mammal AHD/W7
filovirus n thread-like RNA animal virus AHD
ooze n mud, slime, soft deposit at bottom of water AHD/W7
parvovirus n infective agent with DNA in icosahedral protein shell AHD
rhabdovirus n RNA-containing plant/animal virus AHD
virus n.arch venom, poison AHD/W7
viscid adj sticky, having adhesive quality AHD/W7
viscous adj gluey, viscid AHD/W7
weasand n maw, throat, gullet, windpipe IEW/W7
weasel n small slender carnivorous mammal AHD/W7
wisent n aurochs, (European) bison AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: wāse n.fem ooze ASD
Dutch: wezel n weasel TLL
Old High German: weisunt n weasand W7
wīhsila n cherry W7
wisant, wisunt n wisent W7
wisula, wisala n.fem weasel ASD/W7
German: Virus n.neut virus LRC
Wiesel n.neut weasel LRC
Wisent n.masc wisent W7
North Germanic  
Icelandic: veisa n.fem ooze, pool of stagnant water ASD
Danish: væsel n weasel TLL
Swedish: vessla n weasel TLL
Latin: virus n.neut slime, stench, virus: poison W7
viscum n.neut birdlime W7
Late Latin: viscidus adj viscid, slimy W7
viscosus adj viscous, full of birdlime W7
Old Prussian: wissambrs n wisent W7
Greek: ἰξός n.masc mistletoe LS
ἰός n.masc , virus: poison LS
Sanskrit: viṣa n stench, liquid, virus: poison W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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