Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: u̯ek-ti-   'whit, thing'

Semantic Field(s): Form, Shape (n)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: ā-wiht, ā-(wy)ht, ā-(w)uht pron aught, lit. a whit W7/ASD
nā-wiht, nā-(w)ht, nā-uht pron naught, lit. no whit W7/ASD
nō-(wi)ht pron nought, lit. no whit W7/ASD
wiht n.neut whit, wight LRC
Middle English: au(g)ht, aght, auzht pron aught W7/CDC
naught, nought pron naught/nought W7
not adv/pron not; nought W7
wi(g)ht, wyght n whit, wight W7
English: aught pron anything, a whit AHD/W7
Barrow-wight prop.n tomb-wraith in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
naught, nought pron nothing, not aught AHD/W7
not adv negative: without, absence/reverse of AHD
whit n bit, thing, smallest part(icle) AHD/W7
wight n wraith, creature, living being AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: ā-(w)et pron aught, lit. a whit CDC
nā-wet pron naught, lit. no whit ASD
Dutch: iets pron aught CDC
wicht n wight, child LRC
Old Saxon: ēo-wiht pron aught, lit. a whit CDC
neō-wiht pron naught, lit. no whit ASD
wiht n.masc whit, wight, demon CDC/ASD
Middle Low German: i(e)ht, iewet, iet pron aught, lit. a whit CDC
Old High German: eo-wiht, io-wiht, ie-wiht pron aught, lit. a whit CDC
neō-wiht pron naught, lit. no whit ASD
wiht, wihd n.neut whit, wight; nature W7/CDC/ASD
German: Wicht n.masc wight, imp, dwarf, goblin LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: vættr n.fem wight, (supernatural) being LRC
Icelandic: vætta n whit CDC
våttr, vættr n.fem whit, wight CDC/ASD
Danish: vætte n wight, elf CDC
Swedish: vätt(er) n wight, elf LRC
East Germanic  
Gothic: waiht n.neut whit, wight CDC
waíhts n.str.fem whit, wight LRC
Old Slavic: veštĭ n thing W7
Greek: εὑρίσκω vb to find LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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