Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. u̯el-, u̯lei-, u̯lē(i)-   'to will, want, wish, choose'

Semantic Field(s): to Will, Wish


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: nyllan vb to nill, lit. not will ASD/W7
wel adj well W7
wela n.masc weal, wealth W7
willa n.masc will W7
wyllan vb to will W7
Middle English: benevolent adj benevolent W7
galaunt adj gallant W7
nilen vb to nill W7
voluntary adj voluntary W7
voluptuous adj voluptuous W7
wallop n wallop; gallop W7
walopen vb to wallop: gallop W7
wel adj well W7
wele n weal W7
welthe n wealth W7
will n will W7
English: benevolent adj re: benevolence/good intentions AHD/W7
gallant adj smart, showy in dress/bearing AHD/W7
gallimaufry n jumble, medley AHD/W7
gallop n fast springing gait of quadruped AHD/W7
nill vb to be unwilling AHD/W7
velleity n wish, lowest level of volition AHD
volition n act of making choice/decision AHD/W7
voluntary adj re: one's will/choice/consent AHD/W7
voluptuary n sensualist, one given to pleasure/luxury AHD
voluptuous adj full of sensory delight/pleasure AHD/W7
wallop n punch, powerful blow AHD/W7
wallop vb to beat, thrash; move hastily AHD/W7
weal n prosperity, well-being, sound/healthy state AHD/W7
wealth n weal, riches, welfare AHD/W7
well adv rightly, justly, in good/proper manner AHD/W7
will n wish, desire AHD/W7
will vb to wish, desire AHD/W7
willy-nilly adj/adv whether desired or not AHD
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: wel adv well ASD
willa, wella vb to will ASD
willa n.masc will ASD
Dutch: wil vb.1/ will(s), want(s), wish(es) TLL
wilde vb.1/ willed, wished, wanted TLL
Old Saxon: wel adv well ASD
welo n.masc wealth, riches ASD
willian, wellian vb to will ASD
willio n.masc will ASD
Old High German: wela, wola, wolo n.masc wealth ASD
wela, wola adv well ASD/W7
wellan, wollan vb to will ASD
wili he wills W7
willo n.masc will ASD
German: will vb.1/ will(s), want(s), wish(es) TLL
wollte vb.1/ willed, wished, wanted TLL
North Germanic  
Icelandic: vel adv well ASD
vilja vb to will ASD
Danish: vil vb.1/ will(s), want(s) TLL
vilde vb.1/ willed, would, wanted TLL
Swedish: vill vb.1/ will(s), want(s) TLL
ville vb.1/ willed, would, wanted TLL
villig adj willing TLL
väl adj well TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: waila adv well ASD
wilja n.wk.masc will LRC
wiljan vb.irr to will LRC
Latin: benevolens, benevolentis adj well-intentioned W7
vol- pfx will, volition W7
volens, volentis vb.pres.ptc willing W7
volō, velle, voluī vb to will, want LRC
voluntarius adj acting freely/voluntarily W7
voluntas, voluntatis n.fem will LRC
voluptas n.fem pleasure W7
voluptuosus adj delicious, voluptuous W7
Medieval Latin: volitio, volitionis n.fem will, volition W7
Old French: benevolent adj benevolent AHD
Middle French: galant adj gallant, pleasant, re: good manners W7
galer vb to have good time W7
galimafree n.masc hash, gallimaufry W7
galop n gallop W7
French: volition n.fem volition, (act of) will W7
Lithuanian: viltìs n.fem hope LRC
Homeric Greek: ἐλπίς n.fem hope LRC
ἔλπω vb to hope, expect LRC
Greek: ἐλπίζω vb to hope LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
1=1st person
3=3rd person
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
past=past (tense)
pres=present (tense)
sg=singular (number)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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