Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 4. u̯el-, u̯elə-   'wool, hair; grass, wold, forest'

Semantic Field(s): Wool, Hair, Grass, Woods, Forest


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Welsh: gwlan n wool LRC
gwyllt adj wild, mad W7
Old English: weald adj mighty, powerful ASD
wilde adj wild, untamed LRC
wold n.str.masc wold: forest OED
wull n.fem wool W7
West Saxon: weald n.masc weald: forest W7
Anglian: wald n.masc wold: forest ODE
Middle English: flaunneol n flannel, woolen cloth/garment W7
laner n lanner W7
wald, wold n wold: forest W7
welde n weld W7
wilde adj wild W7
wolle n wool W7
English: flannel n soft twilled wool/worsted napped fabric AHD/W7
lanate adj woolly, covered with fine hair/filaments AHD/W7
lanner n falcon AHD/W7
lanolin n wool grease AHD/W7
lanugo n dense downy/cottony growth AHD/W7
Thistlewool prop.n Bree surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
ulotrichous adj having crisp/woolly hair AHD/W7
vellus n fine bodily hair preceding puberty AHD
vole n small rodent (related to lemmings) AHD/W7
Walda prop.n 12th Rohan king in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
weald n wood, forest, woodland AHD
weld n European mignonette (flowery herb) AHD/W7
wild adj untamed, undomesticated, living in natural state AHD/W7
wildebeest n gnu: large African antelope with ox-like horns AHD/W7
Wilderland prop.n wilderness area in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
wilderness n uncultivated uninhabited tract/region of land AHD/W7
Wold prop.n Rohan plain in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
wold n wood, forest; upland plain AHD/W7
wool n soft wavy/curly undercoat of (e.g.) sheep AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: wald n.masc wold: forest ASD/ODE
wilde adj wild ASD
Dutch: wol n wool TLL
woud n wold: forest ODE
Afrikaans: wildebees n wildebeest, lit. wild ox W7
Old Saxon: ala-waldo, alo-waldo adj mighty, powerful ASD
wald n.masc wold: forest ASD/ODE
Old Low German: wildi adj wild ASD
Middle Low German: wolde n weld W7
Old High German: al-walto adj mighty, powerful ASD
wald, walt n.masc wold: forest ASD/W7
wildi adj wild W7
wolla n.fem wool ASD/W7
German: Wald n.masc wold: forest LRC
wild adj wild LRC
Wolle n.fem wool LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: villr adj wild, astray LRC
vǫllr n.masc wold, untilled field ODE
Icelandic: ull n.fem wool ASD
villr adj wild ASD
völlr n.masc wold: plain, field ASD
Danish: uld n wool TLL
Swedish: ull n wool TLL
vild adj wild TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: wilþeis adj wild ASD
wulla, wolla n.fem wool ASD
Latin: lāna n.fem wool W7
lanatus adj woolen W7
lanugo n.fem wool; cocoon W7
vellus n.neut fleece W7
Middle French: lanier n.masc lanner W7
Lithuanian: vluna n wool LRC
Old Church Slavonic: vlasъ n.masc hair LRC
Homeric Greek: εἰλύω vb to roll, wrap, enfold LS
οὖλος adj woolen, woolly LRC
Greek: λῆνος n.neut wool LRC
Hittite: hulana- n wool LRC
Avestan: var̥na n wool LRC
Sanskrit: ū́rfā n wool LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
ODE=C.T. Onions: The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (1966)
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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