Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. u̯en-, u̯enə-   'to love, venerate, strive/wish for'

Semantic Field(s): to Love; Love, to Will, Wish


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: gūþ-wine n.masc [kenning for] sword, lit. war-friend ASD
wēnan vb to ween W7
wenian vb to wean W7
wennan, wenede, wened vb.wk.I to accustom; entertain (joyfully) LRC
wine n.masc wine: friend ASD
Winedas the Wends W7
wine-dryhten n.masc lit. wine-lord LRC
wine-mǣg n.masc lit. wine-kinsman LRC
winnan, wann, wunnon, wunnen vb.str to win, toil, strive, struggle ASD/W7
wunian vb to won, be used to W7
wyn(n) n.str.fem wynn; (name for) W-rune ASD
wynsum adj winsome W7
wȳscan vb to wish W7
Middle English: venerealle adj venereal W7
venerie n venery W7
venial adj venial W7
venim, venom n venom W7
venison n venison W7
Venus prop.n Venus W7
wenen vb to wean W7
wenen vb to ween W7
winnen vb to win W7
winsum adj winsome W7
wisshen vb to wish W7
woned adj wont W7
wonen vb to won, be used to W7
wont adj wont W7
English: banyan n Hindu merchant; East Indian tree AHD/W7
Déorwine prop.n Rohan knight in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Elfwine prop.n 19th Rohan king in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Éowyn prop.n Rohan shield-maiden heroine in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Folcwine prop.n 14th Rohan king in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Fréawine prop.n 5th Rohan king in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Gléowine prop.n Theoden's minstrel in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Goldwine prop.n 6th Rohan king in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Gúthwinë prop.n Eomer's sword in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Holdwine prop.n epithet for Merry in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Théodwyn prop.n Eowyn's mother in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
vanadium n grayish malleable ductile metal AHD/W7
Vanir prop.n tribe of gods opposed to Aesir (Norse mythology) AHD
venerate vb.trans to regard with deference/admiration/reverential respect AHD/W7
venereal adj re: sexual pleasure/indulgence AHD/W7
venery n pursuit of sexual pleasure/indulgence AHD/W7
venery n art/act/practice of hunting AHD/W7
venial adj pardonable, forgivable AHD/W7
venison n edible flesh of wild animal AHD/W7
venom n poison from biting/stinging animal AHD/W7
Venus prop.n (2nd planet, named for) goddess of love (Roman mythology) AHD/W7
wanderoo n purple-faced langur AHD/W7
wean vb.trans to accustom young to food other than mother's milk AHD/W7
ween vb.trans to suppose, imagine AHD/W7
Wend prop.n Sorb: Slavic person from areas near German/Polish border LRC
win, won vb.str to succeed, gain victory in contest AHD/W7
win n strife, labor; success, victory W2I
wine n.obs friend, comrade, companion W2I
winsome adj winning, causing joy/pleasure AHD/W7
wish vb to crave, have desire for AHD/W7
won vb.intrans to dwell, abide AHD/W7
wont adj used, accustomed AHD/W7
wyn(n) n joy, bliss, delight, pleasure; Runic letter ODE
British English: win vb.trans to dry (e.g. hay) by exposure to air/heat AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: wēna vb to ween, think, opine, believe ASD
winna vb.intrans to win ASD
wona, wuna vb to dwell, remain ASD
Dutch: wonen vb to dwell, reside LRC
Old Saxon: wānian vb to ween, hope ASD
wenian, wennian vb to wean, train; fit, prepare ASD
wini n.masc wine ASD
winnan vb.intrans to win, strive, suffer ASD
wonōn, wunōn vb to won, remain ASD
wunnea n.fem wynn ASD
wunsam adj winsome ASD
Old High German: wān(n)en vb to ween, think, believe ASD
wennen vb to wean, train, habituate ASD
wini n.masc wine ASD
Winidā the Wends ASD/W7
winnan vb.intrans to win, fight, quarrel, struggle ASD/W7
wonēn vb to won, stay, remain, be used to ASD/W7
wunna, wunnī n.fem wynn ASD/W7
wunni-sam adj winsome, pleasant, agreeable ASD
wunsken, wunscen vb to wish ASD/W7
German: Wende prop.n Wend W7
wohnen vb to live, dwell, reside LRC
Wohnung n.fem dwelling, residence, habitation TLL
Wonne n.fem wynn LRC
wünschen vb to wish LRC
North Germanic  
Runic: *wunjo n wynn; (name for) W-rune LRC
Old Norse: una vb to enjoy, be contented LRC
Vanadīs prop.n Freya: goddess of love/beauty (Norse mytholgy) W7
vinna vb to win, work, perform LRC
vinr n.masc wine; patron, leader LRC
væna vb to ween, hope W7
væni n.neut expectation LRC
Icelandic: unaðr n.fem joy, delight ASD
venja vb to wean ASD
Vindir the Wends ASD
vinna vb.intrans to win, work, suffer, withstand ASD
vinr n.masc wine ASD
ynði n.fem charm, delight ASD
œskja vb to wish ASD
Swedish: vinna vb to win TLL
våning n dwelling; floor, story TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: *wenjan vb.wk.I to ween, hope, trust, expect GED
winnan vb.str.III to win, suffer GED
Latin: venatio, venationis n.fem hunting LRC
venatus vb.ptc hunted, having hunted W7
venenum n.neut drug, poison, magic charm W7
venereus adj re: charm, sexual desire W7
veneror, venerārī, venerātus vb.dep to honor, venerate LRC
venia n.fem favor, pardon, indulgence W7
venor, venāri vb.dep to hunt, pursue W7
Venus, Veneris prop.n.fem Venus LRC
venus, veneris n.fem love, charm, sexual desire LRC
Vulgar Latin: venimen n.neut venom W7
Late Latin: venialis adj venial, benign, easily forgiven W7
New Latin: vanadium n.neut vanadium W7
Portuguese: banian n banyan: merchant AHD
Old French: veneison n.fem game, hunting; venison W7
venial adj venial, benign, easily forgiven W7
venim n.masc venom W7
Middle French: vener vb to hunt W7
venerie n.fem venery: art of hunting W7
French: vendredi n Friday, lit. Venus' day ODE
Italian: venerdì n Friday, lit. Venus' day ODE
Avestan: vana n forest W7
Sanskrit: vana n forest W7
vāṇijaḥ n banyan: merchant AHD
vānara n monkey W7
Gujarati: vāṇiyo n banyan: merchant AHD
Hindi: baniyā n banyan: merchant W7
Sinhalese: vandurā n (type of) monkey W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
III=class 3
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
ODE=C.T. Onions: The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (1966)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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