Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. u̯endh-   'to turn, wind, wend'

Semantic Field(s): to Turn, to Wind, Wrap


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: oðwindan, oðwand, oðwundon, oðwunden vb.str.III to escape LRC
wandrian vb to wander W7
wendan vb to wend W7
windan, wond, wundon, wunden vb.str.III to wind, twist, roll W7/ASD
windel n.masc basket ASD
Middle English: wand n wand W7
wandren vb to wander W7
wenden vb to wend W7
went vb.pret/ptc went W7
winden vb to wind W7
wynd(l)as n windlass W7
English: Vandal prop.n E Germanic tribe that sacked Rome in 455 AHD/W7
vandal n one who defaces/damages/destroys property W7
wand n verge, slender rod/staff AHD/W7
wander vb to move without fixed aim/goal/course AHD/W7
Wandlimb prop.n Entwife in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
wend, went vb.wk to go, travel, direct one's course AHD/W7
wind, wound vb.str to turn, warp, bend AHD/W7
windlass n hoisting/hauling machine AHD/W7
Withywindle prop.n river in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: wenda vb.trans to wend, turn ASD
Dutch: ingewanden n intestines TLL
wand n wall TLL
Old Saxon: wendian vb.trans to wend, turn ASD
windan vb.intrans to wind, roll, plait ASD
Old High German: Orendil, Erentil prop.n medieval hero, lit. luminous wanderer IEW
want n wall KDW
wenten vb to wend, turn W7
wintan vb to wind, roll, twist W7
Middle High German: wandern vb to rove, roam, wander W7/ASD
German: Wand n.fem wall (of room) TLL
wandern vb to wander LRC
winden vb to wind LRC
Langobardic: Auriwandalo prop.n Lombardic prince, lit. luminous wanderer LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: Aurvandil prop.n Prose Edda hero, lit. luminous wanderer ICE
vandi n.masc habit, custom LRC
vinda vb to wind W7
vindāss n windlass W7
vöndr n wand W7
Icelandic: venda vb.trans to wend, turn ASD
vinda vb.intrans to wind, twist; hurl, thrust ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: bi-windan vb.intrans to wrap, cover ASD
us-windan vb.intrans to punish ASD
wandjan vb.trans to wend, turn ASD
Umbrian: ohavendu (let him) turn aside W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
III=class 3
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
pret=preterite (tense)
sg=singular (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)
3=3rd person

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
ICE=Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson: An Icelandic-English Dictionary (1874)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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