Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: u̯e-n-g-   'bent'

Semantic Field(s): to Bend, Crooked


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: hlēapewince n.fem lapwing W7
pinewincle n.fem periwinkle ASD/W7
wancol adj wonky W7
wencel n.neut wench, child W7
wince n.fem winch W7
wincian vb to wink W7
Middle English: lapwing n lapwing W7
periwinkle n periwinkle W7
wankel adj wankle W7
wenche n wench W7
wenchel n child W7
wenchen vb to wince, dart about, be impatient W7
winche n winch, reel, roller W7
winken vb to wink W7
English: gauche adj crude, lacking social grace/experience AHD/W7
lapwing n crested Old World plover AHD/W7
periwinkle n gastropod mollusk AHD/W7
vacillate vb to sway, oscillate, fluctuate LRC
wankle adj wonky AHD/W7
wench n girl, young woman AHD/W7
wince vb.intrans to flinch, shrink back involuntarily AHD/W7
winch n machine/instrument for hauling/pulling AHD/W7
wink vb to close one eye briefly AHD/W7
winkle n periwinkle W7
wonky adj shaky, unstable, unsteady AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Saxon: wankol adj wankle, fickle, uncertain, fluctuating ASD
Old High German: wanchal adj wankle, slippery, treacherous ASD
wankōn vb to totter W7
winchan, winchen vb to wink, blink; waver, stagger ASD/W7
German: wankeln vb to totter LRC
wanken vb to waver, falter, stagger LRC
winken vb to wink, wave, sign, signal LRC
North Germanic  
Danish: vincle n winkle, snail shell W7
Latin: vacillo, vacillare vb to reel, waver, totter, vacillate W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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