Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 8. u̯er-   'to notice, observe, attend, be aware'

Semantic Field(s): to See, to Look, to Sense, Perceive; Sense


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: gewær adj aware W7
hlāford n.masc lord W7
stī(g)-weard n.masc steward W7
wær adj wary, aware, careful W7
warian, warode, warod vb.wk.II to guard, protect, occupy LRC
waru n.fem ware, merchandise W7
weard n.masc ward, keeper W7
weardian vb to ward W7
Middle English: Arctour, Arture, Arthurus prop.n Arcturus CDC
awarden vb to award, decide W7
aware, ywar, iwar(e) adj aware CDC/W7
garde n guard W7
lord, loverd n lord W7
regard n regard W7
regarden vb to regard W7
rerewarde n rearward W7
rewarden vb to reward W7
steward n steward W7
ward n ward W7
wardein n warden W7
warden vb to ward W7
warder n warder W7
warderobe n wardrobe W7
war(e) adj wary, careful W7
ware adj aware, careful W7
waren vb to ware; spend; guarantee W7
English: Arcturus prop.n Alpha Bootes: bright yellow-orange star AHD
award vb.trans to give by decree AHD/W7
aware adj careful, watchful AHD/W7
cyclorama n large pictorial representation encircling spectator W7
ephor n (Spartan) magistrate with power over king AHD/W7
guard n guardianship AHD/W7
Hayward prop.n friend of Merry in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
hayward n sheriff in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
lord n one having power/authority over others AHD/W7
Morgul-lord prop.n Nazgûl king in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
panorama n cyclorama AHD/W7
pylorus n opening from stomach into intestine AHD/W7
rearward n rear AHD/W7
regard n aspect AHD/W7
regard vb to pay attention to AHD/W7
revere vb.trans to show devotion/honor to AHD/W7
reward vb.trans to give to in return for good/evil done/received AHD/W7
steward n one employed to manage domestic concerns AHD/W7
ward n guard, act/process of guarding AHD/W7
ward vb.trans to guard, keep watch over AHD/W7
warden n keeper, guardian, one having care/charge of something AHD/W7
warder n truncheon used to signal orders AHD/W7
wardrobe n room/closet for keeping clothes AHD/W7
ware n goods, merchandise, art/craft products AHD/W7
ware vb.trans to beware of AHD/W7
wary adj marked by caution/cunning/watchful prudence AHD/W7
Windlord prop.n eagle a.k.a. Gwaihir in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Witch-lord prop.n Nazgûl Lord in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: wardia vb to ward, keep, defend ASD
ware n.fem care, observance ASD
waria vb to ware ASD
wera vb to ware; check, hinder, restrain ASD
were n.fem ware ASD
Old Saxon: wara n.fem heed, safekeeping ASD
ward n.masc ward, guardian ASD
wardōn vb to ward, to have charge of ASD
warōn vb to ware ASD
werian vb to ware; check, hinder, restrain ASD
Old High German: bi-warōn vb to ward, protect W7
gi-war adj wary, aware, attentive W7
wara n.fem heed, care ASD
wart n.masc ward, sentry ASD
warta n.fem ward, concern ASD/W7
wartēn vb to ward, watch, take care W7
werien vb to ware; check, hinder, restrain ASD
Middle High German: gewar adj aware CDC
ware n ware W7
German: bewahren vb to preserve, conserve LRC
gewahr adj aware LRC
Ware n.fem ware LRC
Wärter n.masc warden TLL
North Germanic  
Old Norse: vara, varað vb to ware, expect LRC
varða n.fem cairn, marker, beacon KNW
varða vb to ward W7
varr adj wary LRC
Icelandic: vara n.fem ware ASD
vara vb to ware ASD
vörðr n.masc warden, watchman, sentinel ASD
Swedish: minnesvård n monument TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: daura-wards n.masc warden, watchman, sentinel ASD
warei n.fem cunning ASD
warjan vb to ware; hinder, prevent ASD
Latin: Arcturus n.masc Arcturus W7
ephorus n.masc supervisor W7
reveror, revereri vb.dep to respect with fear W7
vereor, vereri vb.dep to fear, respect W7
Late Latin: pylorus n.masc gatekeeper W7
Spanish: esquardar vb to award CDC
Old French: eswarde(i)r vb to award CDC
garde n.masc guardian W7
garder vb to guard, defend W7
regard n.masc regard, glance W7
regarder vb to regard, look at W7
reregarde n.fem rear guard W7
Old North French: eswarder vb to ward, watch W7
rewarder vb to reward, regard W7
wardein vb to ward W7
warder vb to ward W7
warderobe n.fem wardrobe W7
Anglo-French: awarder vb to award CDC
Middle French: garde n.masc guardian W7
Italian: sguardare vb to award, decide, consider, look at CDC
Homeric Greek: ἐφ-οράω vb to behold, look upon LRC
ὁράω, ὁρόω vb to see, behold LRC
οὖρος n ward, watch LRC
Greek: Arktouros n.masc Arcturus, the Bear Watcher W7
ἔσοπτρον n.neut mirror LRC
ephoros n.masc ephor, supervisor W7
horama n.neut sight W7
horān vb to see AHD/W7
pylōros n.masc gatekeeper W7
συνοράω vb to comprehend LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
II=class 2
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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