Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. u̯erg̑-, u̯reg̑-   'to do, work, be effective'

Semantic Field(s): to Do, Make


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: be-weorcean, bi-wyrcan vb to make, build, cover, adorn, work in ASD
bewyrcan, beworhte, beworht vb.wk.I to make, build, cover, adorn, work in LRC
gew(e)orc, gewere n.neut work; fort(ress) ASD/W7
gewyrc(e)an, geworhte, geworht vb.wk.I to achieve, perform, accomplish ASD
handgeweorc n.neut handiwork W7
organa, organe n.fem organ, musical instrument ASD/W7
we(o)rc n.neut work, deed LRC
wryhta, wyrhta n.masc wright, worker, maker W7
wyrcan, worhte, worht vb.wk.I to work, labor ASD
Middle English: bulwerke n bulwark W7
handiwerk n handiwork W7
irken vb to irk W7
litargie n lethargy W7
organ n organ W7
surgerie n surgery W7
werk n work W7
werken vb to work W7
work n work W7
worken vb to work W7
wright n wright W7
wrought adj wrought W7
English: adrenergic adj liberating/activated by adrenaline AHD/W7
allergy n altered bodily reactivity (to antigens) AHD/W7
argon n colorless odorless inert gas AHD/W7
boulevard n broad landscaped thoroughfare AHD/W7
bulwark n rampart, solid wall-like structure AHD/W7
cholinergic adj liberating/activated by acetycholine AHD/W7
demiurge n subordinate deity (Greek philosophy) AHD/W7
dramaturge n playwright AHD/CDC
endergonic adj re: energy absorption AHD
endoergic adj re: (nuclear) energy absorption AHD
energetic adj strenuous, marked by energy W7
energy n vitality of expression AHD/W7
erg n CGS unit of work AHD/W7
ergative adj re: case of grammatical subject AHD
ergograph n apparatus for measuring muscular work capacity AHD/W7
ergometer n apparatus for measuring muscular work performed AHD/W7
ergonomics n designing job/workplace/equipment to maximize productivity AHD
exergonic adj releasing energy AHD
exergue n space on coin/token/medal below central design AHD/W7
exoergic adj releasing energy AHD
georgic adj re: agriculture AHD/W7
handiwork n work done by hand AHD/W7
irk vb.trans to make bored/weary/irritated AHD/W7
lethargy n abnormal drowsiness AHD/W7
liturgy n prescribed rites for public worship AHD/W7
metallurgy n science/technology of metals AHD/W7
organ n musical instrument AHD/W7
organon n instrument for acquiring knowledge AHD/W7
orgy n secret ceremonial rite involving ecstatic singing/dancing AHD/W7
playwright n writer of plays LRC
surgery n branch of medicine dealing with diseases AHD/W7
synergid n small cell near micropyle of seed plant embryo sac AHD/W7
synergism n cooperative action of agencies (whole effect greater than sum of parts) AHD/W7
thaumaturge n thaumaturgist: magician, lit. miracle-worker AHD/W7
-urgy n.sfx technique/art of dealing/working with (something) AHD/W7
work, wrought vb.wk to effect, bring to pass AHD/W7
work n activity where one exerts strength/faculties to do/perform something AHD/W7
wright n worker, carpenter AHD/W7
wrought adj formed, fashioned AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: werk n.neut work ASD
werka vb to work, labor ASD
Middle Dutch: bolwerc n bulwark W7
Dutch: werken vb to work LRC
Old Saxon: giwerk n work; fort(ress) ASD
hand-giwerk n handiwork ASD
werk n.neut work, pain ASD
wirkian vb to work, labor ASD
wurhtio n.masc wright, worker, maker ASD
Old High German: gawerk n work; fort(ress) ASD
weran n.neut work, structure ASD
werc n work W7
wurchen, wirchen vb to work, labor ASD
wurhto n.masc wright, worker, maker ASD
Middle High German: bolwerc n bulwark W7
German: Allergie n allergy W7
Bollwerk n.neut bulwark LRC
Handwerk n.neut handiwork LRC
Werk n.neut work LRC
wirken vb to work LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: verk n work LRC
verkr n ache, pain LRC
yrkja vb to do, work LRC
Icelandic: organ n.neut organ: instrument ASD
verk n.neut work ASD
yrkja vb to work, labor ASD
Danish: virke vb to work LRC
Swedish: verk n work TLL
verka vb to work LRC
värk n ache, pain LRC
East Germanic  
Gothic: frawaúrhts n.str.fem sin LRC
gawaurki n work; fort(ress) ASD
waúrkjan vb.wk.I to work, make, labor LRC
Crimean Gothic: *warþata, v(v)arthata (you/he) did/made CGo
Latin: chirurgia n.fem surgery W7
georgicus adj re: farming W7
organum n.neut organ W7
orgia festivals honoring Bacchus/Dionysos W7
Late Latin: demiurgus n.masc demiurge W7
energia n.fem energy W7
lethargia n.fem lethargy W7
liturgia n.fem liturgy, public cult/prayer W7
Medieval Latin: litargia n.fem lethargy W7
New Latin: exergum n.neut exergue W7
metallurgia n.fem metallurgy W7
synergida n.fem synergid W7
synergismus n.masc synergism W7
thaumaturgus adj re: working miracles W7
-urgia sfx -urgy, craft W7
Old French: cirurgie n.fem surgery W7
organe n.masc organ W7
surgerie n.fem surgery W7
Middle French: orgie n.fem orgy W7
French: boulevard n.masc boulevard W7
exergue n.masc exergue W7
thaumaturge n.masc thaumaturge W7
Homeric Greek: ἐργάζομαι vb to do, make, work, perform LRC
ἔργον n.neut work, deed LRC
Greek: ἀργός adj idle, lazy, inert, slothful CDC
geōrgikos adj re: farming W7
geōrgos n.masc farmer W7
δημιουργός n.masc demiurge, lit. people's worker LRC
ἐνέργεια n.fem energy, activity, operation LS
ἐνεργητικός adj energetic CDC
ἐνεργός adj busy, active, working, energetic LS
thaumatourgos adj lit. miracle-working W7
leitourgia n.fem liturgy, public cult/service W7
lēthargia n.fem lethargy, forgetfulness W7
lēthargos adj lethargic, forgetful W7
organon n.neut tool, instrument W7
-ourgia sfx service W7
-ourgos sfx worker W7
synergos adj working together W7
cheirourgia n.fem surgery W7
cheirourgos n.masc surgeon W7
Classical Armenian: gorc n work, deed LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
pret=preterite (tense)
sg=singular (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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