Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 8. u̯es-   'to buy, sell, exchange'

Semantic Field(s): to Buy, to Sell, to Trade


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: revilen vb to revile W7
vile adj vile W7
English: bazaar n Oriental market: rows of shops/stalls AHD/W7
monopsony n market with single buyer AHD
revile vb to vituperate, subject to verbal abuse AHD/W7
venal adj purchasable, able to be bought/sold for money AHD/W7
vile adj common, of small worth/account AHD/W7
vilify vb to lower in importance/estimation AHD/W7
Latin: venalis adj venal, for sale W7
venum n.neut sale W7
vilis adj vile, base W7
Old French: vil adj vile, base W7
Middle French: reviler vb to revile, despise W7
vil adj vile, mean W7
Italian: bazarro n bazaar AHD
Homeric Greek: ὠνητός adj bought, purchased LRC
ὦνος n purchase-money LRC
Greek: ōneisthai vb to buy W7
Persian: bāzār n bazaar W7
Sanskrit: vasna n price W7
Urdu: bāzār n bazaar AHD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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