Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: u̯idhu-   'tree, wood'

Semantic Field(s): Tree, Oak, Wood, Timber


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: fid n tree W7
Old English: gār-wudu n.masc javelin, lit. spear-wood ASD
wudu, wi(o)du n.masc wood ASD
wudu-wāsa n.masc woodwose ASD
Middle English: wode n wood W7
woodwose n woodwose OED
English: Chetwood prop.n Bree woods in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Entwood prop.n a.k.a. Fangorn Forest in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Firienwood prop.n White Mountains forest in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Greenwood prop.n Mirkwood's former name in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Mirkwood prop.n gloomy forest in Tolkien: The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings LRC
silva n forest trees W7
silvan, sylvan adj in woods/forest, re: silva W7
Watchwood prop.n vigilant forest in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
wood n material from tree; forest, dense growth of trees AHD/W7
Woodhall prop.n Shire village in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Woodland prop.n Sylvan Elves' realm in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Woodmen Mirkwood dwellers in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
woodwose n faun, satyr; wild woodsman OED
West Germanic  
Old High German: witu n.masc wood W7/ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: viðr n.masc wood, beam; tree, forest LRC
Old Icelandic: Myrk-viðr prop.n.masc east Europe forest, lit. Murk-wood LRC
Icelandic: viðr n.masc wood, tree ASD
Swedish: ved n wood TLL
Latin: silva n.fem wood, grove, forest, silva IEW/CLD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CLD=Cassell's Latin Dictionary (1959, rev. 1968)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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