Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: u̯ī̆ro-s   'man, warrior'

Semantic Field(s): Man, Soldier


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: wer n.masc man LRC
wernægl n.masc warnel, lit. man-nail OED
werwulf n.masc werewolf, lit. man-wolf LRC
woruld, weor(o)ld n.fem world, age, human existence W7
Middle English: decurioun n decurion W7
virtu n virtue W7
werewolf n werewolf W7
world n world W7
English: curia n subdivision of ancient Roman tribe AHD/W7
decemvir n one of 10 magistrates (ancient Rome) AHD/W7
decurion n Roman cavalry officer commanding 10 men AHD/W7
duumvir n one of 2 magistrates (ancient Rome) AHD/W7
triumvir n one of 3 magistrates (ancient Rome) AHD/W7
virago n woman of great strength/stature/courage AHD/W7
virile adj having manly nature/properties/qualities AHD/W7
virtue n morality, conformity to standard of right AHD/W7
virtuosa n female virtuoso AHD/W7
virtuoso n savant, experimenter/investigator in arts/sciences AHD/W7
warnel n wart, hard skin tumor OED
weltanschauung n philosophy of life AHD
weltschmerz n sadness re: world's evils AHD
werewolf n lycanthrope, lit. man-wolf LRC
wergeld, weregild n recompense, rank-based price set on person's life AHD/OED
world n earthly human existence AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: warld, wrald n.fem world ASD
wer n.masc man, male person ASD
Dutch: wereld n world TLL
Old Saxon: wer n.masc man, male person ASD
werold n.fem world, men, lifetime ASD
Old High German: wer n.masc man, male person ASD/W7
weralt n.fem world, earth; time, age ASD/W7
werwolf n werewolf W7
German: Welt n.fem world TLL
Weltanschauung n.fem weltanschauung, lit. world-view W7
Weltschmerz n.masc weltschmerz, lit. world-pain W7
Werwolf n.masc werewolf LRC
North Germanic  
Icelandic: verr n.masc man, male person ASD
Danish: verden n world TLL
Swedish: värld n world TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: waír n.str.masc man, male person LRC
Latin: curia n.fem assembly of Roman people W7
decemvir n.masc one of college of ten W7
decuria n.fem group of ten W7
decurio, decurionis n.masc decurion W7
duumvir n.masc one of college of two W7
triumvir n.masc one of college of three W7
vir, viri n.masc man LRC
virago, viraginis n.fem virago, amazon, heroine W7
virilis adj virile, re: man W7
virtus, virtutis n.fem virtue, manly qualities W7
vis, vis n.fem strength, power LRC
Late Latin: virtuosus adj virtuous W7
Old French: virtu n.fem virtue W7
Middle French: viril adj virile, manly W7
Italian: virtuoso adj good, honest, virtuous W7
virtuoso n.masc skilled/virtuous man W7
Lithuanian: výras n.masc man, husband LRC
Sanskrit: vīra n man W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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