Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: u̯l̥kos   'wolf, lobo'

Semantic Field(s): Wolf


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: Bēowulf prop.n.masc Bear, lit. bee-wolf LRC
here-wulf n.masc warrior, lit. war-wolf ASD
werwulf n.masc werewolf, lit. man-wolf LRC
wulf n.masc wolf W7
Wulfred prop.n.masc Wulfred LRC
Middle English: lupine n lupine W7
werewolf n werewolf W7
wolf n wolf W7
English: aardwolf n carrion-eating SE African mammal AHD/W7
alyssum n Old World herb in mustard family AHD/W7
Gárulf prop.n Rohan rider in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
lobo n wolf AHD/W7
lupine adj wolfish AHD/W7
lupine n leguminous herb AHD/W7
lupus n disease involving skin lesions AHD/W7
lycanthrope n person believing self to be wolf AHD/W7
Lycia prop.n ancient SW Anatolian country AHD
lytta n fibrous/cartilaginous rod in carnivorous mammal's tongue AHD/W7
robalo n snook, tropical marine food fish AHD
Ulfilas prop.n Gothic Bible translator LRC
werewolf n lycanthrope, lit. man-wolf AHD/W7
Wolf prop.n huge dog in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
wolf n large canine mammal AHD/W7
wolfram n tungsten AHD/W7
wolframite n tungsten ore W7
Wolf-rider prop.n ally of Saruman in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Wulf prop.n Rohan enemy in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
West Germanic  
Dutch: wolf n wolf TLL
Afrikaans: aardwolf n aardwolf W7
Old Saxon: wulf n.masc wolf ASD
Old High German: werwolf n werewolf W7
wolf n.masc wolf ASD/W7
German: Werwolf n.masc werewolf LRC
Wolf n.masc wolf W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: ulfa-hamr n.masc wolf-hame LRC
Old Icelandic: ulfr n wolf LRC
Icelandic: ulfr n.masc wolf ASD
Danish: ulv n wolf TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: Wulfila prop.n.dim Ulfilas, lit. little wolf LRC
wulfs n.masc wolf ASD
Latin: alysson n (kind of) madder AHD
lupinus, lupinum n.masc/neut lupin W7
lupinus adj wolfish W7
lupus n.masc wolf W7
Medieval Latin: lupus n.masc wolf; the disease lupus W7
New Latin: alyssum n.neut alyssum W7
lycanthropus n.masc werewolf, lycanthrope W7
Spanish: lobo n.masc wolf W7
Lithuanian: vílkas n wolf LRC
Latvian: vìlks n wolf LRC
Old Church Slavonic: vlŭkŭ n wolf LRC
Russian: volčlca n wolf LRC
Albanian: ujk n wolf LRC
Homeric Greek: ἀλύσσω vb to be frenzied LRC
Λῠκία prop.n.fem Lycia (land of wolf-people) LS
λύκος n.masc wolf LRC
λύσσα n.fem (martial) rage LRC
Greek: alysson n.neut plant thought to cure rabies W7
alyssos adj curing rabies W7
lykanthrōpos n.masc werewolf, lit. wolf-man W7
Λύκιος n.masc Lycius LRC
lyssa n rabies W7
lytta n.fem rabies, madness W7
Hittite: lukka n (land of) wolf-people LRC
ulippana n wolf LRC
Armenian: gayl n wolf LRC
Avestan: vəhrko n wolf LRC
Sanskrit: vŕ̥kas n wolf LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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