Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: u̯reg-, and u̯erg-?   'to drag, push, drive, thrust'

Semantic Field(s): to Draw, Pull, to Push, Shove, to Drive


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: wræc n.neut wrack, misery, punishment W7
wræc-lāst n.str.masc path of exile, lit. misery track LRC
wrecan, wræc, wræcon, wrecen vb.str.V to wreak, drive, force LRC
wrecca n.wk.masc wretch, exile, outcast LRC
Middle English: rak n rack W7
wrack n wrack W7
wrecche n wretch W7
wrek n wreck W7
wreken vb to wreak W7
English: gasket n line/band used to lash furled sail AHD/W7
rack n high wind-driven mass of clouds AHD/W7
urge vb to demand/present/advocate earnestly/pressingly AHD/W7
wrack n ruin, destruction AHD/W7
wreak vb.trans to avenge, take vengeance AHD/W7
wreck n something cast up on land after shipwreck AHD/W7
wretch n profoundly unhappy/miserable/unfortunate person AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: wreka vb to drive, press ASD
Old Saxon: wrecan vb to wreak, punish ASD
Old High German: rehhan, rechan vb to wreak, punish W7/ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: rek n wreck W7
Icelandic: reka vb to wreak, drive ASD
Swedish: rak n wreck W7
Latin: urgeo, urgēre vb to urge, drive on W7
French: garcette n.fem braided whip used to punish W7
Old Church Slavonic: vragъ n.masc enemy LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
V=class 5
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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