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English: Master Glossary

This Master Glossary page lists, in an alphabetical order suitable to the language and the script employed for it, every unique word form that appears in lesson texts and, for each word, its unique glosses. In addition to the gloss information, sans contextual translation, links are provided to every appearance, in every numbered lesson, of the word/gloss in question. With this index one may perform a quick "word look-up" and, in addition, study how words are used in context by clicking on their links.


abead - strong verb, class II; 3rd person singular preterite of <ābēodan, ābēad, ābudon, āboden> bid, announce ac - conjunction; <ac> and, but, however ædra - noun, feminine; <ædre> artery, channel æfter - adverb; <æfter> after(wards), then agenum - adjective; dative of <āgen> own ahof - strong verb, class VI; 3rd person singular preterite of <āhebban, āhōf, āhōfon, āhafen> raise, lift up aldorlēase - noun, masculine; <ealdor> elder, parent, prince + adjective; nominative plural masculine <lēas> without, bereft of aldormon - noun, masculine; nominative singular of <ealdor-monn> nobleman, lit. older man aldormonnes - noun, masculine; genitive singular of <ealdor-monn> nobleman, lit. older man Ælfred - proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Ælfred> Alfred alle - adjective; nominative plural of <eall> all ælmihtig - adjective; nominative singular masculine of <ælmihtig> almighty ambyrne - adjective; accusative singular masculine of <ambyr> favorable, fair and - conjunction; <and> and andsware - noun, feminine; accusative singular of <andswaru> answer, response andswarode - weak verb, class II; 3rd person singular preterite of <andswarian, andswarode, andswarod> answer, respond Angelcyn - proper noun, neuter; accusative singular of <Angel-cynn> English, lit. Angle kin arleasra - adjective; <ārlēas> base, dishonorable, wicked æsc - noun, masculine; accusative singular of <æsc> ash (tree), spear; boat, ship æscas - noun, masculine; accusative plural of <æsc> ash (tree), spear; boat, ship æscum - noun, masculine; dative plural of <æsc> ash (tree), spear; boat, ship æt - preposition; <æt> at, against ætgifan - noun, masculine; dative singular of <æt-gifa> food-giver atol - adjective; accusative singular neuter of <atol> dire, repulsive Æþelgāres - proper noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Æþelgār> Aethelgar æþeling - strong noun, masculine; accusative singular of <æðeling> nobleman, prince æþeling - strong noun, masculine; nominative singular of <æðeling> nobleman, prince æþelinga - strong noun, masculine; genitive plural of <æðeling> nobleman, prince æþelingas - strong noun, masculine; nominative plural of <æðeling> nobleman, prince æðelo - indeclinable noun, feminine; accusative singular of <æðelo> noble race ā - adverb; <ā> always, ever ācwehte - weak verb, class I; 3rd person singular preterite of <ācweccan, ācwehte, ācweht> shake, brandish; quiver āgāne - anomalous verb; past participle of <ā-gān> pass, occur, lit. away go āgenne - adjective; accusative singular masculine of <āgen> own ǣghwylc - adjective; nominative singular masculine of <ǣghwilc> all, every ǣgðer - conjunction; <ǣg-hwæðer> both...and āh - preterite-present verb, class I; 3rd person singular preterite indicative of <āgan, āh, āgon, āhte> have, possess ǣlce - adjective; instrumental singular of <ǣlc> all, any ān - indefinite article; nominative singular of <ān> a, an, one āna - adjective; <ān> alone, single ānhaga - noun, masculine; nominative singular of <ānhaga> recluse, wanderer ǣnig - adjective; accusative singular neuter of <ǣnig> any ǣnig - adjective; nominative singular masculine of <ǣnig> any ānum - indefinite article; dative singular masculine of <ān> a, an, one ǣr - adverb; <ǣr> ere, before, formerly āra - noun, feminine; genitive plural of <ār> oar ārǣd - adjective; <ārǣd> arranged, inexorable ārās - strong verb, class I; 3rd person singular preterite of <ārīsan, ārās, ārison, ārisen> arise āre - strong noun, feminine; genitive singular of <ār> honor, favor ǣrest - adverb; superlative of <ǣr> ere, before, formerly ǣror - adverb; comparative of <ǣr> ere, before, formerly āsecgan - weak verb, class III; infinitive of <āsecgan, āsægde, āsægd> say, relate āþer - correlative conjunction; <āhwæþer> either bæcbord - noun, neuter; accusative singular of <bæc-bord> larboard, port side baldlīce - adverb; <bald-līce> boldly bana - weak noun, masculine; nominative singular of <bana> bane, slayer banan - weak noun, masculine; accusative singular of <bana> bane, slayer bǣdon - strong verb, class V; 3rd person plural preterite of <biddan, bæd, bǣdon, beden> bid, beseech, urge be - preposition; <be> at, by, near be norðan - adverb; <be norðan> north of beadurōfes - adjective; <beadurōf> bold, heroic beæftan - preposition; <beæftan> behind bealosīþa - noun, masculine; genitive plural of <bealu-sīð> peril, calamity. lit. harm-journey bearme - noun, masculine; dative singular of <bearm> bosom, lap bearn - noun, neuter; nominative plural of <bearn> child bearn - noun, neuter; nominative singular of <bearn> child bearn - noun, neuter; accusative plural of <bearn> child bearnum - noun, neuter; dative plural of <bearn> child beboden - strong verb, class II; past participle of <bebēodan, bebēad, bebudon, beboden> command, instruct begēton - strong verb, class V; 3rd person plural preterite of <begietan, begeat, begēaton, begieten> get, acquire begnornodon - weak verb, class II; 3rd person plural preterite of <begnornian, begnornode, begnornod> mourn, lament beleac - strong verb, class II; preterite singular of <belūcan, belēac, belucon, belocen> close, lock, shut belocen - strong verb, class II; past participle of <belūcan, belēac, belucon, belocen> close, lock, shut beorg - noun, masculine; accusative singular of <beorg> hill, mountain beorgas - noun, masculine; accusative plural of <beorg> hill, mountain Beorhtulf - proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Beorhtulf> Bertulf beornas - noun, masculine; accusative plural of <beorn> man, nobleman Beornulf - proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Beornulf> Bernuff berað - strong verb, class IV; 3rd person plural present of <beran, bær, bǣron, boren> bear, carry betimbredon - weak verb, class I; 3rd person plural preterite of <betimbran, betimbrede, betimbred> build, construct betux - preposition; <betux> between beworhton - weak verb, class I; 3rd person plural preterite of <bewyrcan, beworhte, beworht> work, construct, cover bēcn - noun, neuter; <bēcn> beacon, sign bēg - noun, masculine; accusative singular of <bēag> ring, crown bēgen - pronoun; nominative dual masculine of <bēgen> both bēon - anomalous verb; infinitive of <bēon> be, become, exist bēotan - strong verb, class VII; 3rd person plural preterite of <bēatan, bēot, bēoton, bēaten> beat, pound, strike Bēowulf - proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Bēo-wulf> bear, lit. bee wolf bidǣled - weak verb, class I; past participle of <bedǣlan, bidǣlde, bidǣled> deprive, release bidroren - strong verb, class II; past participle of <bedrēosan, bedrēas, bedruron, bedroren> bereave, deprive of bigeal - strong verb, class III; 3rd person singular preterite of <begiellan, begeall, begullon, begollen> yell, scream, screech bigeat - strong verb, class V; 3rd person singular preterite of <begietan, begeat, begēaton, begieten> get, acquire bihongen - strong verb, class VII; past participle of <behōn, behēng, behēngon, behongen> hang round bindað - strong verb, class III; 3rd person plural present of <bindan, bond, bundon, bunden> bind, tie binde - strong verb, class III; 3rd person singular present subjunctive of <bindan, bond, bundon, bunden> bind, tie biscop - noun, masculine; nominative singular of <bisceop> bishop, prelate bitre - adjective; accusative singular feminine of <bitre> bitter, sharp bið - anomalous verb; 3rd person singular present indicative of <bēon> be, become, exist biþ - anomalous verb; 3rd person singular present indicative of <bēon> be, become, exist biwrāh - strong verb, class I; 1st person singular preterite of <bewrēon, biwrāh, biwrigon, biwrigen> cover, conceal bīdan - strong verb, class I; infinitive of <bīdan, bād, bidon, biden> bide, endure, remain bīon - anomalous verb; infinitive of <bēon> be, become, exist blǣd - noun, neuter; nominative singular of <blǣd> blade, leaf blǣd - noun, masculine; nominative singular of <blǣd> breath, spirit, life blisse - strong noun, feminine; genitive singular of <bliss> bliss, joy, happiness bond - strong verb, class III; 3rd person singular preterite of <bindan, bond, bundon, bunden> bind, tie bord - noun, neuter; accusative singular of <bord> board, shield borda - noun, neuter; genitive plural of <bord> board, shield brād - adjective; nominative singular of <brād> broad, open brādost - adjective; superlative of <brād> broad, open brādre - adjective; comparative of <brād> broad, open brēme - adjective; nominative singular of <brēme> famous, renowned brēostceare - noun, feminine; accusative singular of <brēost-cearu> anxiety, heart-care brēostcofan - noun, masculine; dative singular of <brēost-cofa> heart, affections brimlāde - noun, feminine; dative singular of <brim-lād> path of the sea, lit. sea lane brimmen - noun, masculine; nominative plural of <brim-man> sailor, lit. sea man bronda - noun, masculine; genitive plural of <brand> fire, flame bryttan - noun, masculine; accusative singular of <brytta> giver, distributor Bryttiscum - proper adjective; dative singular masculine of <Bryttisc> British budon - strong verb, class II; 3rd person plural preterite of <bēodan, bēad, budon, boden> bid, command, offer burgum - strong noun, feminine; dative plural of <burg> enclosure, stonghold būde - irregular verb; 3rd person singular preterite of <būan, būde, bȳne> dwell, live būtan - preposition; <būton> without, except for būton - preposition; <būton> without, except for būton - conjunction; <būton> unless; except (that) bylde - weak verb, class I; 3rd person singular preterite of <byldan, bylde, bylded> cheer, encourage Byrhtwold - proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Byrhtwold> Byrhtwold byrig - strong noun, feminine; dative singular of <burg> enclosure, stonghold bȳne - adjective; nominative singular neuter of <bȳn> inhabited, occupied bȳnum - adjective; dative singular neuter of <bȳn> inhabited, occupied Cædmon - proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Cædmon> Ca|edmon caldast - adjective; superlative of <ceald> cold calde - adjective; dative singular masculine of <ceald> cold caldum - adjective; dative plural masculine of <ceald> cold care - noun, feminine; accusative singular of <cearu> care, grief, sorrow ceare - noun, feminine; accusative singular of <cear> care, sorrow ceare - noun, feminine; nominative plural of <cearu> care, grief, sorrow cearselda - noun, neuter; genitive plural of <cear-seld> place of sorrow, care-place cenned - weak verb, class I; past participle of <cennan, cennede, cenned> beget, conceive, bring forth Cent - proper noun, feminine; dative singular of <Cent> Kent cēapes - noun, masculine; genitive singular of <cēap> cattle cēnre - adjective; comparative of <cēne> bold cēole - noun, masculine; dative singular of <cēol> keel (of a ship) Cēolmund - proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Cēolmund> Ceolmund cirre - noun, masculine; dative singular of <cierr> occasion, time, turn clifum - noun, neuter; dative plural of <clif> cliff clommum - noun, masculine; dative plural of <clom> bond, fetter; grasp clūdig - adjective; nominative singular of <clūdig> rocky cnossað - weak verb, class II; 3rd person singular present of <cnossian, cnossode, cnossod> drive, pitch cnyssað - weak verb, class I; 3rd person plural present of <cnyssan, cnysede, cnysed> beat, strike con - modal (preterit-present) verb, class III; 1st person singular present indicative of <cunnan, cann, cunnon, cūðe> can, know how to corna - noun, neuter; genitive plural of <corn> corn, grain cōmon - strong verb, class IV; 3rd person plural preterite of <cuman, cwōm, cwōmon, cumen> come cruncon - strong verb, class III; 3rd person plural preterite of <cringan, crong, crungon, crungen> cringe, yield; die cuǣdon - strong verb, class V; 3rd person plural preterite of <cweðan, cwæð, cwǣdon, cweden> say, speak cume - strong verb, class IV; 3rd person singular present optative of <cuman, cwōm, cwōmon, cumen> come cunnað - weak verb, class II; 3rd person singular present of <cunnian, cunnode, cunnod> seek, explore, experience cunnige - weak verb, class II; 1st person singular present subjunctive of <cunnian, cunnode, cunnod> seek, explore, experience cūðe - modal (preterit-present) verb, class III; 1st person singular preterite indicative of <cunnan, cann, cunnon, cūðe> can, know how to cwæð - strong verb, class V; 3rd person singular preterite of <cweðan, cwæð, cwǣdon, cweden> say, speak cwǣdon - strong verb, class V; 3rd person plural preterite of <cweðan, cwæð, cwǣdon, cweden> say, speak Cwēna - proper noun, masculine plural; genitive of <Cwēnas> Cwenas, Cwena people Cwēnas - proper noun, masculine plural; nominative of <Cwēnas> Cwenas, Cwena people cwicra - adjective; genitive plural of <cwic> quick, alive cwilde - noun, masc/fem/neut; dative singular of <cwild> disease, plague, pestilence cwīðan - weak verb, class I; infinitive of <cwīðan, cwīðe, cwīðed> accuse; bewail, lament cwīþan - weak verb, class I; infinitive of <cwīðan, cwīðe, cwīðed> accuse; bewail, lament cymð - strong verb, class IV; 3rd person singular present of <cuman, cwōm, cwōmon, cumen> come cyng - strong noun, masculine; nominative singular of <cyning> king cynges - strong noun, masculine; genitive singular of <cyning> king cyning - strong noun, masculine; accusative singular of <cyning> king cyning - strong noun, masculine; nominative singular of <cyning> king cyninge - strong noun, masculine; dative singular of <cyning> king cyninges - strong noun, masculine; genitive singular of <cyning> king cȳþdon - weak verb, class I; 3rd person plural preterite of <cȳðan, cȳðde, cȳðed> reveal, make known daga - noun, masculine; genitive plural of <dæg> day dæge - noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <dæg> day dagum - noun, masculine; dative plural of <dæg> day dǣdum - noun, feminine; dative plural of <dǣd> deed, action Defenum - proper noun, masculine plural; dative of <Defenas> Devonians, Devonshire Denisc - proper adjective; accusative singular of <Denisc> Danish dēmdon - weak verb, class I; 3rd person plural preterite of <dēman, dēmde, dēmed> deem, judge; praise dēor - adjective; nominative singular masculine of <dēor> brave, valiant Dorceceastre - proper noun, feminine; dative singular of <Dorce-ceastre> Dorchester dōm - strong noun, masculine; accusative singular of <dōm> doom, decision; glory dōmgeorne - adjective; nominative plural masculine of <dōm-georn> lit. glory-desirous drehton - weak verb, class I; 3rd person plural preterite of <dreccan, drehte, dreht> afflict, harass drēorig - adverb; <drēorig> drearily, sadly drēorigne - adjective; accusative singular masculine of <drēorig> dreary, sad drihten - noun, masculine; <drihten> lord, prince, ruler drihten - noun, masculine; nominative singular of <drihten> lord, prince, ruler drugon - strong verb, class II; 3rd person plural preterite of <drēogan, drēag, drugon, drogen> endure, suffer dryhten - noun, masculine; nominative singular of <drihten> lord, prince, ruler drȳgum - adjective; dative singular of <drȳge> dry dugeðum - noun, feminine; dative plural of <duguð> host, body of retainers; glory duguðum - noun, feminine; dative plural of <duguð> host, body of retainers; glory durre - preterite-present verb, class III; 1st person singular present optative of <durran, dearr, durron, dorste> dare duru - noun, feminine; accusative singular of <duru> door dyde - anomalous verb; 3rd person singular preterite indicative of <dōn> do, make dyde - anomalous verb; 1st person singular preterite indicative of <dōn> do, make dydon - anomalous verb; 3rd person plural preterite indicative of <dōn> do, make dyrum - adjective; dative plural of <dȳre> dear, beloved eac - adverb; <ēac> also, even, moreover eafera - weak noun, masculine; nominative singular of <eafora> son, heir eaforan - weak noun, masculine; accusative plural of <eafora> son, heir eahtodan - weak verb, class II; 3rd person plural preterite of <eahtian, eahtode, eahtod> praise, esteem eal - adverb; <eall> all, entirely eal - adjective; nominative singular of <eall> all eald - adjective; nominative singular masculine of <eald> old ealdor - noun, masculine; nominative singular of <ealdor> elder, parent, prince ealdormon - noun, masculine; nominative singular of <ealdor-monn> nobleman, lit. older man Ealdwold - proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Ealdwold> Ealdwold Ealhheard - proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Ealhheard> Elhard eall - adverb; <eall> all eall - adjective; <eall> all ealle - adjective; accusative plural masculine of <eall> all ealle - adjective; nominative plural masculine of <eall> all ealle - adjective; accusative singular feminine of <eall> all ealles - adjective; genitive singular of <eall> all ealne - adjective; accusative singular masculine of <eall> all ealra - adjective; genitive plural masculine of <eall> all earce - noun, feminine; accusative singular of <earc> ark earce - noun, feminine; genitive singular of <earc> ark eard - noun, masculine; accusative singular of <eard> home, land eardiað - weak verb, class II; 3rd person plural present of <eardian, eardode, eardod> live, dwell eardstapa - weak noun, masculine; nominative singular of <eard-stapa> wanderer, lit. earth-stepper earfeþa - noun, neuter; genitive plural of <earfeðe> hardship, suffering earfoðhwīle - noun, feminine; accusative singular of <earfoð-hwīl> lit. hardship-time earmcearig - adjective; nominative singular masculine of <earm-cearig> miserable, lit. wretched-caring earn - noun, masculine; nominative singular of <earn> eagle Ecgulf - proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Ecgulf> Egulf eft - adverb; <eft> afterwards, thereupon egorstreamas - noun, masculine; nominative plural of <ēagor-strēam> sea-stream, current egsode - weak verb, class II; 3rd person singular preterite of <egsian, egsode, egsod> terrify eldum - indeclinable noun, masculine plural; dative of <ylde> men ellen - noun, neuter; accusative singular of <ellen> valor, courage ellenweorc - noun, neuter; accusative plural of <ellen-weorc> work of courage elþēodigra - adjective used as noun; <elðēodig> alien, foreign, strange emnlange - preposition; <emnlange> along endebyrdnes - noun, feminine; nominative singular of <endebyrdnes> order, sequence endebyrdnesse - noun, feminine; dative singular of <endebyrdnes> order, sequence eom - anomalous verb; 1st person singular present indicative of <is> be, become, exist eorla - noun, masculine; genitive plural of <eorl> earl, nobleman, warrior eorlas - noun, masculine; accusative plural of <eorl> earl, nobleman, warrior eorle - noun, masculine; dative singular of <eorl> earl, nobleman, warrior eorlscipe - indeclinable noun, masculine; accusative singular of <eorlscipe> nobility, heroic deeds eorðan - noun, feminine; genitive singular of <eorð> earth eorþan - noun, feminine; accusative singular of <eorð> earth erian - weak verb, class I; infinitive of <erian, erede, ered> plow ettan - weak verb, class I; infinitive of <ettan, ettede, etted> graze, pasture eðelland - noun, neuter; accusative singular of <ēðel-land> native land ēac - adverb; <ēac> also, even, moreover Ēadulf - proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Ēadulf> Eadulf Ēastengle - proper noun, masculine plural; accusative of <Ēast-Engle> East Angles, East Anglia Ēastenglum - proper noun, masculine plural; dative of <Ēast-Engle> East Angles, East Anglia ēasteweard - adverb; <ēast-weard> eastward ēastewerd - adverb; <ēast-weard> eastward Ēastseaxum - proper noun, masculine plural; dative of <Ēast-Seaxan> East Saxons, Essex ēce - adjective; nominative singular masculine of <ēce> eternal, everlasting ēode - anomalous verb; 3rd person singular preterite indicative of <gān> go, walk, move ēodon - anomalous verb; 3rd person plural preterite indicative of <gān> go, walk, move ēowre - 2nd person pronoun; used as adjective <ðū> you ēðle - noun, masculine; dative singular of <ēðel> home, native land fæder - noun, masculine; genitive singular of <fæder> father fæge - adjective; accusative singular of <fǣge> doomed, fated fægrost - adverb; superlative of <fæger> fairly, beautifully faran - strong verb, class VI; infinitive of <faran, fōr, fōron, faren> go, ride, travel fæsle - noun, neuter; dative singular of <fæsl> progeny, offspring fæste - adverb; <fæste> fast, firmly, securely fǣges - adjective; accusative singular masculine of <fǣge> doomed, fated feaht - strong verb, class III; 3rd person singular preterite of <feohtan, feaht, fuhton, fohten> fight fela - indeclinable adjective; <fela> much, many feoh - strong noun, neuter; accusative singular of <feoh> cattle, goods, money feohgiftum - noun, feminine; dative plural of <feoh-gift> money-, lit. cattle-gift feohlēase - adjective; nominative plural of <feoh-lēas> moneyless, lit. without cattle feohtende - strong verb, class III; present participle of <feohtan, feaht, fuhton, fohten> fight feor - preposition; <feor> far (from) feor - adverb; <feor> far (from) feorh - strong noun, masc/neut; accusative singular of <feorh> life feorhhūs - noun, neuter; accusative singular of <feorh-hūs> body, lit. life-house feowertig - numeral; <fēowertig> forty ferhðum - noun, masc/neut; dative plural of <ferð> mind, soul, spirit fers - noun, neuter; accusative plural of <fers> sentence, verse fersce - adjective; nominative plural of <fersc> fresh ferð - noun, masc/neut; accusative singular of <ferð> mind, soul, spirit ferðloca - noun, masculine; nominative singular of <ferð-loca> breast, heart, lit. spirit enclosure ferðlocan - noun, masculine; accusative singular of <ferð-loca> breast, heart, lit. spirit enclosure feterum - noun, feminine; dative plural of <fetor> fetter, shackle fēasceaft - adjective; nominative singular masculine of <fēasceaft> poor, destitute fēasceaftig - adjective; <fēasceaftig> poor, destitute fēol - strong verb, class VII; 3rd person singular preterite of <feallan, fēoll, fēollon, feallen> fall, flow fēores - strong noun, masc/neut; genitive singular of <feorh> life fēos - strong noun, neuter; genitive singular of <feoh> cattle, goods, money fēran - weak verb, class I; infinitive of <fēran, fērde, fēred> go, travel fēt - noun, masculine; nominative plural of <fōt> foot findan - strong verb, class III; infinitive of <findan, fond, fundon, funden> find Finnas - proper noun, masculine plural; nominative of <Finnas> Finns fīfum - numeral; dative plural of <fīf> five fīrum - noun, masculine plural; dative of <firas> men, people flæschoman - weak noun, masculine; accusative singular of <flǣsc-homa> body flēag - strong verb, class II; 3rd person singular preterite of <flēogan, flēag, flugon, flogen> flee, fly flod - noun, masculine; nominative singular of <flōd> flood, deluge folc - noun, neuter; accusative singular of <folc> folk, people folce - noun, neuter; dative singular of <folc> folk, people foldan - noun, feminine; accusative singular of <folde> earth, ground foldan - noun, feminine; dative singular of <folde> earth, ground foldan - noun, feminine; genitive singular of <folde> earth, ground folgian - weak verb, class II; infinitive of <folgian, folgode, folgod> follow, obey, serve for - preposition; <for> for, because of for ðon - conjunction; <for þon> because, therefore for þon - conjunction; <for þon> because, therefore foran - adverb; <foran> before, in front forbēah - strong verb, class II; 3rd person singular preterite of <forbūgan, forbēah, forbugon, forbogen> flee from fore - preposition; <fore> for, before foresnotre - adjective; nominative plural masculine of <fore-snotor> clever, prudent forfōran - strong verb, class VI; 3rd person plural preterite of <for-faran, for-fōr, for-fōron, for-faren> obstruct, get in front of forgeaf - strong verb, class V; 3rd person singular preterite of <forgifan, forgeaf, forgēafon, forgiefen> give, grant forhēawen - strong verb, class VII; past participle <forhēawan, forhēow, forhēowon, forhēawen> hew, cut down forlēt - strong verb, class VII; 3rd person singular preterite of <forlǣtan, forlēt, forlēton, forlǣten> leave, abandon forlēton - strong verb, class VII; 3rd person plural preterite of <forlǣtan, forlēt, forlēton, forlǣten> leave, abandon forste - noun, masculine; dative singular of <forst> frost forswīðe - adverb; <forswīðe> utterly, excessively forð - adverb; <forð> forth, thence forðfērdon - weak verb, class I; 3rd person plural preterite of <forð-fēran, forð-fērde, forð-fēred> die, depart, lit. go forth fōron - strong verb, class VI; 3rd person plural preterite of <faran, fōr, fōron, faren> go, ride, travel fram - preposition; <fram> from frea - noun, masculine; nominative singular of <frēa> lord, master fremedon - weak verb, class I; 3rd person plural preterite of <fremman, fremede, fremed> do, perform frēa - noun, masculine; nominative singular of <frēa> lord, master frēfran - weak verb, class I; infinitive of <frēfran, frēfrede, frēfred> cheer, comfort frēoge - weak verb, class II; 3rd person singular present optative of <frēogan, frēoge, frēog> love frēomǣgum - noun, masculine; dative plural of <frēo-mǣg> noble (lit. free) kinsman frēondlēasne - adjective; accusative singular masculine of <frēond-lēas> friend-less frēorig - adjective; nominative singular masculine of <frēorig> chill, cold, freezing Frēsisc - proper adjective; accusative singular of <Frēsisc> Frisian from - preposition; <fram> from from - adverb; <fram> away fromum - adjective; dative plural feminine of <from> bold, brave, splendid frōd - adjective; nominative singular masculine of <frōd> old, wise, experienced frōfre - noun, feminine; dative singular of <frōfor> relief, solace, consolation frōfre - noun, feminine; accusative singular of <frōfor> relief, solace, consolation frumsceaft - noun, feminine; accusative singular of <frumsceaft> creation ful - adverb; <ful> fully, completely fulgon - strong verb, class III; 3rd person plural preterite of <fēolan, fealh, fulgon, folen> reach, penetrate fulnēah - adverb; <fulnēah> almost, very nearly funden - strong verb, class III; past participle of <findan, fond, fundon, funden> find fylð - strong verb, class VII; 3rd person singular present of <feallan, fēoll, fēollon, feallen> fall, flow fyrenðearfe - noun, feminine; accusative singular of <fyren-ðearf> dire distress fyrmest - adjective; superlative of <forma> first ganetes - noun, masculine; genitive singular of <ganot> gannet, goose gatu - strong noun, neuter; accusative plural of <geat> gate gār - noun, masculine; nominative singular of <gār> spear gār - noun, masculine; accusative singular of <gār> spear Gār-Dena - proper noun, masculine plural; genitive of <gār-Dene> spear-Danes ge - conjunction; <ge> both...and, either...or geardum - noun, masculine; dative plural of <geard> yard, enclosure; dwelling gearo - adjective; nominative singular of <gearo> prepared, ready geāra - adverb; <geāra> yore, long since gebād - strong verb, class I; 3rd person singular preterite of <gebīdan, gebād, gebidon, gebiden> remain; await; experience; attain gebǣrum - strong noun, neuter; dative plural of <gebǣre> cry, behavior gebēad - strong verb, class II; 3rd person singular preterite of <gebēodan, gebēad, gebudon, geboden> offer gebēorscipe - noun, masculine; dative singular of <gebēorscipe> feast, beer party gebēorscipes - noun, masculine; genitive singular of <gebēorscipe> feast, beer party gebiden - strong verb, class I; past participle of <gebīdan, gebād, gebidon, gebiden> remain; await; experience; attain gebind - noun, neuter; <gebind> band, binding, fastening gebīdeð - strong verb, class I; 3rd person singular present of <gebīdan, gebād, gebidon, gebiden> remain; await; experience; attain geboden - strong verb, class II; past participle of <gebēodan, gebēad, gebudon, geboden> offer gebræc - strong verb, class IV; 3rd person singular preterite of <gebrecan, gebræc, gebrǣcon, gebrocen> break, destroy, subdue gebrocede - weak verb, class II; past participle <gebrocian, gebrocede, gebroced> crush; hurt, afflict gebrocod - weak verb, class II; past participle of <gebrocian, gebrocede, gebroced> crush; hurt, afflict gebrōþru - noun, masculine; nominative plural of <gebrōþor> brother gebunden - strong verb, class III; past participle of <bindan, bond, bundon, bunden> bind, tie gecranc - strong verb, class III; 3rd person singular preterite of <gecringan, gecranc, gecrungon, gecrungen> cringe, fall, perish gecunnad - weak verb, class II; past participle of <gecunnian, gecunnade, gecunnad> know; try, test, make trial of gedēfe - adjective; nominative singular neuter of <gedēfe> fitting, seemly gedēmed - weak verb, class I; past participle of <dēman, dēmde, dēmed> deem, judge; praise gedōn - anomalous verb; past participle of <gedōn> act, do, bring to pass gedrēas - strong verb, class II; 3rd person singular preterite of <gedrēosan, gedrēas, gedruron, gedroren> fall, fail gedydon - anomalous verb; 3rd person plural preterite indicative of <gedōn> act, do, bring to pass gefēngon - strong verb, class VII; 3rd person plural preterite of <gefōn, gefēng, gefēngon, gefangen> take, seize gefēran - weak noun, masculine; nominative plural of <gefēra> companion, comrade gefērum - weak noun, masculine; dative plural of <gefēra> companion, comrade gefor - strong verb, class VI; 3rd person singular preterite of <gefaran, gefōr, gefōron, gefaren> go, proceed gefremman - weak verb, class I; infinitive of <gefremman, gefremede, gefremed> advance, further gefrūnon - strong verb, class III; 1st person plural preterite of <gefrīnan, gefrān, gefrūnon, gefrūnen> learn, hear of gegremode - weak verb, class II; past participle <gegremian, gegremode, gegremod> enrage gehīerdun - weak verb, class I; 3rd person plural preterite of <gehīeran, gehīerede, gehīered> hear (of) geholena - noun, masculine; genitive plural of <gehola> friend, confidant, protector gehwære - adverb; <gehwær> on every side, everywhere gehwæs - pronoun; genitive singular of <gehwā> each, everyone gehwǣre - pronoun; dative singular feminine of <gehwā> each, everyone gehwelcum - indefinite pronoun; dative singular masculine of <gehwylc> each, every one gehwylce - indefinite pronoun; instrumental singular masculine of <gehwylc> each, every one gehȳrde - weak verb, class I; 1st person singular preterite of <gehīeran, gehīerede, gehīered> hear (of) gehȳrde - weak verb, class I; 3rd person singular preterite of <gehīeran, gehīerede, gehīered> hear (of) gelāc - noun, neuter; accusative singular of <gelāc> tumult, commotion gelǣsten - weak verb, class I; 3rd person plural present optative of <gelǣstan, gelǣste, gelǣset> serve, stand by geleornade - weak verb, class II; 3rd person singular preterite of <geleornian, geleornode, geleornod> learn, study gelimplicre - adjective; dative singular feminine of <gelimplic> suitable gelȳfedre - adjective; genitive singular feminine of <gelyfed> advanced gelȳfeð - weak verb, class I; 3rd person singular present of <gelīefan, gelīefde, gelīefed> grant; believe, trust gemon - preterite-present verb, class IV; 3rd person singular present indicative of <gemunan, geman, gemunon, gemunde> remember, be mindful of gemōt - noun, neuter; nominative singular of <gemōt> meeting, council, assembly gemyndig - adjective; nominative singular masculine of <gemyndig> mindful generede - weak verb, class I; 3rd person singular preterite of <generian, generede, genered> save, protect genēat - noun, masculine; nominative singular of <genēat> companion, retainer genumen - strong verb, class IV; past participle of <geniman, genam, genāmon, genumen> seize, take geogoðe - noun, feminine; dative singular of <geogoð> youth, youngster geoguðe - noun, feminine; dative singular of <geogoð> youth, youngster geoguþe - noun, feminine; dative singular of <geogoð> youth, youngster geond - preposition; <geond> over, through(out) geong - adjective; nominative singular masculine of <geong> young gescæpene - strong verb, class VI; past participle <gescieppan, gescōp, gescōpon, gesceapen> shape, create gesceōp - strong verb, class VI; 3rd person singular preterite of <gescieppan, gescōp, gescōpon, gesceapen> shape, create geseah - strong verb, class V; 3rd person singular preterite of <gesēon, geseah, gesǣgon, gesegen> see, observe geseglian - weak verb, class II; infinitive of <geseglian, geseglode, geseglod> sail geseted - weak verb, class I; past participle of <gesettan, gesette, geseted> set (out), appoint, establish gesette - weak verb, class I; 3rd person singular preterite of <gesettan, gesette, geseted> set (out), appoint, establish gesēce - weak verb, class I; 1st person singular present of <gesēcan, gesōhte, gesōht> seek, desire gestah - strong verb, class I; 3rd person singular preterite of <gestīgan, gestāh, gestigon, gestigen> mount, ascend gestrēon - noun, neuter; accusative singular of <gestrēon> wealth, treasure gesunde - adjective; nominative plural of <gesund> safe, unharmed geswincdagum - noun, masculine; dative plural of <geswinc-dæg> day of toil gesȳne - strong verb, class V; past participle of <gesēon, geseah, gesǣgon, gesegen> see, observe geþeo͡n - strong verb, class I; infinitive <geþēon, geþāh, geþigon, geþigen> thrive, prosper geþicgean - strong verb, class V; infinitive of <geþicgan, geþeah, geþǣgon, geþegen> take, accept, receive geþōhtas - noun, masculine; accusative plural of <geðōht> thought geþrange - noun, neuter; accusative singular of <geþrang> throng, tumult geþrungen - strong verb, class III; past participle of <þringan, þrong, þrungon, þrungen> throng, crowd, press geðungnestan - adjective used as substantive; superlative <geðungen> grown, excellent, distinguished gewat - strong verb, class I; 3rd person singular preterite of <gewītan, gewāt, gewiton, gewiten> depart, go gewāt - strong verb, class I; 1st person singular preterite of <gewītan, gewāt, gewiton, gewiten> depart, go gewealc - noun, neuter; accusative singular of <gewealc> rolling, tossing gewinne - noun, neuter; dative singular of <gewinn> battle, strife, struggle geworhton - weak verb, class I; 3rd person plural preterite of <gewyrcan, geworhte, geworht> perform, achieve, accomplish gewundad - weak verb, class II; past participle of <gewundian, gewundode, gewundod> wound gewundode - weak verb, class II; 3rd person singular preterite of <gewundian, gewundode, gewundod> wound gewunigen - weak verb, class II; 3rd person plural present optative of <gewunian, gewunode, gewunod> remain with, stand by gewyrcean - weak verb, class I; infinitive of <gewyrcan, geworhte, geworht> perform, achieve, accomplish gēara - noun, neuter; genitive plural of <gēar> year gēardagum - noun, masculine; dative plural of <gēar-dæg> lit. year-day gēare - noun, neuter; instrumental singular of <gēar> year gēares - noun, neuter; genitive singular of <gēar> year gēarum - noun, neuter; dative plural of <gēar> year Gēata - proper noun, masculine; genitive plural of <Gēat> Geat gēn - adverb; <gēn> still, yet, further gēre - noun, neuter; dative singular of <gēar> year gif - conjunction; <gif> if gifena - strong noun, feminine; genitive plural of <giefu> gift, favor gīsle - noun, masculine; dative singular of <gīsel> hostage gleaw - adjective; nominative singular of <glēaw> wise, prudent gnornian - weak verb, class II; infinitive of <gnornian, gnornode, gnornod> mourn, lament God - proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <God> God, Deity Godes - proper noun, masculine; genitive singular of <God> God, Deity Godrīc - proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Godrīc> Godric godsunu - strong noun, masculine; nominative singular of <godsunu> godson gold - noun, neuter; nominative singular of <gold> gold gold - noun, neuter; accusative singular of <gold> gold goldwine - noun, masculine; nominative singular <gold-wine> lit. gold-friend goldwine - noun, masculine; accusative singular of <gold-wine> lit. gold-friend gomban - weak noun, feminine; accusative singular of <gombe> tribute gomene - noun, neuter; dative singular of <gomen> pastime, pleasure, entertainment gongende - strong verb, class VII; present participle of <gongan, gēong, gēongon, gongen> go, walk Gotland - proper noun, neuter; nominative singular of <Got-land> Goth land gōd - adjective; nominative singular masculine of <gōd> good, excellent gōde - adjective; dative singular neuter of <gōd> good, excellent grap - strong verb, class I; 3rd person singular preterite of <grīpan, grāp, gripon, gripen> grasp, seize grēote - noun, neuter; dative singular of <grēot> grit, dust, earth grētte - weak verb, class I; 3rd person singular preterite of <grētan, grētte, grēted> greet, approach grund - noun, masculine; accusative singular of <grund> ground, earth guma - noun, masculine; nominative singular of <guma> man, hero gūðe - noun, feminine; dative singular of <gūð> battle gūþe - noun, feminine; dative singular of <gūð> battle gūðe - noun, feminine; accusative singular of <gūð> battle gyf - conjunction; <gif> if gyldan - strong verb, class III; infinitive of <gieldan, geald, guldon, golden> yield, pay habban - weak verb, class III; infinitive of <habban, hæfde, hæfd> have, possess habbað - weak verb, class III; 3rd person plural present of <habban, hæfde, hæfd> have, possess hæbbe - weak verb, class III; 1st person singular present of <habban, hæfde, hæfd> have, possess hafað - weak verb, class III; 3rd person singular present of <habban, hæfde, hæfd> have, possess hæfde - weak verb, class III; 3rd person singular preterite of <habban, hæfde, hæfd> have, possess hæfdon - weak verb, class III; 3rd person plural preterite indicative of <habban, hæfde, hæfd> have, possess hafenode - weak verb, class II; 3rd person singular preterite of <hafenian, hafenode, hafenod> raise, lift up hægl - noun, masculine; nominative singular of <hagol> hail hæse - noun, feminine; dative singular of <hǣs> behest, command hālette - weak verb, class I; 3rd person singular preterite of <hālettan, hālette, hāleted> hail, salute Hālgoland - proper noun, neuter; nominative singular of <Hālgo-land> Helgeland hālig - adjective; nominative singular masculine of <hālig> holy hām - adverb; <hām> home, homewards Hāmtūnscīre - proper noun, feminine; dative singular of <Hāmtūn-scīr> Hampshire hǣt - strong verb, class VII; 3rd person singular present of <hātan, heht, hēton, hāten> call, name; order hāte - adjective; nominative plural feminine of <hāt> hot, fervid hātte - strong verb, class VII; 3rd person singular passive of <hātan, heht, hēton, hāten> call, name; order he - 3rd person pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <hē, hēo, hit> he, she, it hea - adjective; accusative plural masculine of <hēah> high healdan - strong verb, class VII; infinitive of <healdan, hēold, hēoldon, lealden> hold, retain, preserve healde - strong verb, class VII; 3rd person singular present subjunctive of <healdan, hēold, hēoldon, lealden> hold, retain, preserve healfe - noun, feminine; dative singular of <healf> half, part, side heardra - adjective; comparative of <heard> stern, strong hearpan - noun, feminine; accusative singular of <hearpe> harp helpe - noun, feminine; accusative singular of <helpe> help, aid heofon - noun, masculine; accusative singular of <heofon> heaven, sky heofonrices - noun, neuter; genitive singular of <heofon-rīce> kingdom of heaven heofonrīces - noun, neuter; genitive singular of <heofon-rīce> kingdom of heaven heofonum - noun, masculine; dative plural of <heofon> heaven, sky heolstre - noun, masculine; dative singular of <heolstor> cover, concealment heonan - adverb; <heonon> hence heora - 3rd person pronoun; genitive plural of <hē, hēo, hit> he, she, it heord - noun, feminine; nominative singular of <heord> care, custody heortan - noun, feminine; genitive singular of <heorte> heart heortan - noun, feminine; accusative singular of <heorte> heart heorte - noun, feminine; nominative singular of <heorte> heart heorðgenēatas - noun, masculine; nominative plural of <heorð-genēat> lit. hearth-companion here - noun, masculine; nominative singular of <here> (enemy) army herenesse - noun, feminine; dative singular of <herenes> praise hergas - noun, masculine; nominative plural of <here> (enemy) army herge - weak verb, class I; 3rd person singular present optative of <herian, herede, hered> praise, extol hergiað - weak verb, class II; 3rd person plural present of <hergian, hergode, gehergod> harry, raid, ravage hergode - weak verb, class II; 3rd person singular preterite of <hergian, hergode, gehergod> harry, raid, ravage herian - weak verb, class I; infinitive of <herian, herede, hered> praise, extol het - strong verb, class VII; 3rd person singular preterite of <hātan, heht, hēton, hāten> call, name; order - 3rd person pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <hē, hēo, hit> he, she, it hēah - adjective; nominative singular of <hēah> high hēan - adjective; accusative plural masculine of <hēan> abject, depressed, miserable hēan - adjective; nominative singular masculine of <hēan> abject, depressed, miserable hēow - strong verb, class VII; 3rd person singular preterite of <hēawan, hēow, hēowon, hēawen> hew, cut down, kill hēr - adverb; <hēr> here hēt - strong verb, class VII; 3rd person singular preterite of <hātan, heht, hēton, hāten> call, name; order hider - adverb; <hider> here, hither hiera - 3rd person pronoun; genitive plural of <hē, hēo, hit> he, she, it hige - noun, masculine; nominative singular of <hyge> heart, mind, soul hilde - strong noun, feminine; dative singular of <hild> battle, war hildedēore - adjective; nominative plural masculine of <hilde-dēor> lit. battle-bold him - 3rd person pronoun; dative of <hē, hēo, hit> he, she, it him - 3rd person pronoun; dative plural of <hē, hēo, hit> he, she, it him - 3rd person pronoun; used as reflexive <hē, hēo, hit> he, she, it him - 3rd person pronoun; dative singular masculine of <hē, hēo, hit> he, she, it hine - 3rd person pronoun; used as reflexive <hē, hēo, hit> he, she, it hine - 3rd person pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <hē, hēo, hit> he, she, it his - 3rd person pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <hē, hēo, hit> he, she, it his - 3rd person pronoun; genitive singular neuter of <hē, hēo, hit> he, she, it hit - 3rd person pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <hē, hēo, hit> he, she, it hit - 3rd person pronoun; nominative singular neuter of <hē, hēo, hit> he, she, it - 3rd person pronoun; nominative plural of <hē, hēo, hit> he, she, it - 3rd person pronoun; accusative plural of <hē, hēo, hit> he, she, it hīe - 3rd person pronoun; accusative plural of <hē, hēo, hit> he, she, it hīe - 3rd person pronoun; nominative plural of <hē, hēo, hit> he, she, it hīe - 3rd person pronoun; used as reflexive <hē, hēo, hit> he, she, it hīerran - adjective; comparative <hēah> high hlāford - strong noun, masculine; nominative singular of <hlāford> lord, master hlāforde - strong noun, masculine; dative singular of <hlāford> lord, master hlāfordes - strong noun, masculine; genitive singular of <hlāford> lord, master hlǣw - strong noun, masculine; accusative singular of <hlǣw> mound hleahtor - noun, masculine; accusative singular of <hleahtor> laughter, jubilation hlēomǣga - noun, masculine; genitive plural of <hlēo-mǣg> lit. protector-kinsman hlēoþor - noun, neuter; accusative singular of <hlēoðor> song, sound hlimman - strong verb, class III; infinitive of <hlimman, hlamm, hlumon, hlummen> roar, resound hliðe - noun, neuter; dative singular of <hlið> cliff, hill hof - noun, neuter; accusative singular of <hof> court; dwelling hold - adjective; <hold> gracious, favorable hondum - noun, feminine; dative plural of <hond> hand hordcofan - noun, masculine; accusative singular of <hord-cofa> treasure chamber, lit. hoard cove horde - noun, neuter; dative singular of <hord> hoard, treasure horsþegn - strong noun, masculine; nominative singular of <hors-þegn> horse-thane hreoh - adjective; nominative singular masculine of <hrēo> fierce, wild, savage hrēo - adjective; nominative singular masculine of <hrēo> fierce, wild, savage hrēran - weak verb, class I; infinitive of <hrēran, hrērde, hrēred> move, stir hrīm - noun, masculine; nominative singular of <hrīm> rime, hoar-frost hrīmcealde - adjective; accusative singular feminine of <hrīm-ceald> ice-cold, frosty hrīmgicelum - noun, masculine; dative plural of <hrīm-gicel> icicle hrof - noun, masculine; accusative singular of <hrōf> roof hronrāde - noun, feminine; accusative singular of <hron-rād> sea, lit. whale-road hrōfe - noun, masculine; dative singular of <hrōf> roof Hrōfesceastre - proper noun, feminine; dative singular of <Hrōfe-ceaster> Rochester hrūsan - noun, feminine; genitive singular of <hrūse> earth, ground hryre - strong noun, masculine; genitive plural of <hryre> death, fall, ruin hryre - strong noun, masculine; accusative singular of <hryre> death, fall, ruin huilpan - noun, feminine; genitive singular of <hwilpe> curlew? water-bird hund - numeral; <hund> hundred hungor - noun, masculine; nominative singular of <hungor> hunger - conjunction; <hū> how - adverbial conjunction; <hū> how hūs - noun, neuter; accusative singular of <hūs> house hūse - noun, neuter; dative singular of <hūs> house hwæt - interrogative pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <hwā, hwā, hwæt> who, what hwæt - adjective; nominative singular masculine of <hwætt> bold, valiant hwæthwegu - indefinite pronoun; accusative singular of <hwæt-hwegu> something hwæðere - conjunction; <hwæðere> but, yet, however hwǣr - adverbial conjunction; <hwǣr> where hwēne - adverb; <hwōn> somewhat, a little hwīle - noun, feminine; accusative singular of <hwīl> while, time hwīlum - noun, feminine; dative plural of <hwīl> while, time hwōn - noun, neuter; accusative singular of <hwōn> trifle hycge - weak verb, class III; 3rd person singular present subjunctive of <hycgan, hogode, hogod> think, resolve hyge - noun, masculine; nominative singular of <hyge> heart, mind, soul hygeteonan - noun, masculine; accusative singular of <hygeteona> injury, insult hyra - 3rd person pronoun; genitive plural of <hē, hēo, hit> he, she, it hyrsta - noun, feminine; accusative plural of <hyrst> armor, ornament hyt - 3rd person pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <hē, hēo, hit> he, she, it - 3rd person pronoun; accusative plural of <hē, hēo, hit> he, she, it - 3rd person pronoun; nominative plural of <hē, hēo, hit> he, she, it hȳnde - weak verb, class I; 3rd person singular preterite of <hȳnan, hȳnde, hȳned> despise, injure, insult hȳran - weak verb, class I; infinitive of <hīeran, hīerde, hīered> hear, obey; belong ic - 1st person pronoun; nominative singular of <ic> I ilcan - adjective; instrumental singular neuter of <ilca> same ilcan - adjective; genitive singular neuter of <ilca> same ilce - adjective; accusative singular neuter of <ilca> same in - preposition; <in> in, into indryhten - adjective; nominative singular masculine of <indrihten> (very) noble innan - preposition; <innan> in, within innan - preposition used as adverb; <innan> in, within intinga - noun, masculine; nominative singular of <intinga> cause, reason is - anomalous verb; 3rd person singular present indicative of <bēon> be, become, exist - adverb; <gīo> before, of old īgland - noun, neuter; nominative plural of <īglond> island Īraland - proper noun, neuter; nominative singular of <Īra-land> Ireland Īralande - proper noun, neuter; dative singular of <Īra-land> Ireland īscaldne - adjective; accusative singular masculine of <īs-ceald> ice-cold īscealdne - adjective; accusative singular masculine of <īs-ceald> ice-cold īsigfeþera - adjective; nominative singular masculine of <īsig-feðera> lit. icy-feathered kyning - strong noun, masculine; accusative singular of <cyning> king lædan - weak verb, class I; infinitive of <lǣdan, lǣde, lǣded> lead, bring læg - strong verb, class V; 3rd person singular preterite of <licgan, læg, lǣgon, legen> lie, extend, be situated lagulāde - strong noun, feminine; accusative singular of <lagu-lād> water-way, ocean journey Lameches - proper noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Lamech> Lamech land - strong noun, neuter; nominative singular of <lond> land, realm, country land - strong noun, neuter; accusative singular of <lond> land, realm, country lande - strong noun, neuter; dative singular of <lond> land, realm, country lang - adjective; nominative singular of <lang> long lang - adjective; accusative plural of <lang> long lange - adjective; nominative plural of <lang> long lange - adjective; accusative singular feminine of <lang> long lǣded - weak verb, class I; past participle of <lǣdan, lǣde, lǣded> lead, bring lǣfde - weak verb, class I; 3rd person singular preterite of <lǣfan, lǣfde, lǣfed> leave, bequeath lāfe - noun, feminine; accusative singular of <lāf> remnant, what is left lǣge - strong verb, class V; 3rd person singular preterite subjunctive of <licgan, læg, lǣgon, legen> lie, extend, be situated lǣgon - strong verb, class V; 3rd person plural preterite of <licgan, læg, lǣgon, legen> lie, extend, be situated lǣrde - weak verb, class I; 3rd person singular preterite of <lǣran, lǣrde, lǣred> teach, advise, exhort lāstum - noun, masculine; dative plural of <lāst> track, footprint let - strong verb, class VII; 3rd person singular preterite of <lǣtan, lēt, lēton, lǣten> let, allow lēode - noun, masculine; nominative plural of <lēod> person, member of tribe lēode - noun, masculine; accusative plural of <lēod> person, member of tribe lēodum - noun, masculine; dative plural of <lēod> person, member of tribe lēofan - adjective; dative singular of <lēof> lief, dear, beloved lēofra - adjective; comparative <lēof> lief, dear, beloved lēofra - adjective; comparative of <lēof> lief, dear, beloved lēohte - adjective; accusative plural of <lēoht> light, easy lēoð - noun, neuter; accusative singular of <lēoð> song, poem licgan - strong verb, class V; infinitive of <licgan, læg, lǣgon, legen> lie, extend, be situated licgað - strong verb, class V; 3rd person plural present of <licgan, læg, lǣgon, legen> lie, extend, be situated lichaman - weak noun, masculine; dative singular of <līc-homa> body, flesh lifað - weak verb, class III; 3rd person singular present of <libban, lifde, lifd> live limo - noun, neuter; accusative plural of <lim> limb limpeð - strong verb, class III; 3rd person singular present of <limpan, lamp, lumpon, lumpen> befall, happen līfes - noun, neuter; genitive singular of <līf> life Līffrea͡ - proper noun, weak masculine; nominative singular of <Līf-frea͡> lit. Life-lord līð - strong verb, class V; 3rd person singular present of <licgan, læg, lǣgon, legen> lie, extend, be situated līðost - adjective; superlative of <līðe> kind, gracious lofdǣdum - strong noun, feminine; dative plural of <lof-dǣd> praiseworthy deed lofgeornost - adjective; superlative of <lof-georn> eager for praise lond - strong noun, neuter; accusative singular of <lond> land, realm, country londe - strong noun, neuter; dative singular of <lond> land, realm, country londes - strong noun, neuter; genitive singular of <lond> land, realm, country longe - adverb; <longe> for long (time) lōcude - weak verb, class II; 3rd person singular preterite of <locian, locode, locod> look lust - noun, masculine; nominative singular of <lust> lust, desire, pleasure LX - numeral; <siextig> sixty lȳt - noun, neuter; accusative singular of <lȳt> little, small number lȳtlað - weak verb, class II; 3rd person singular present of <lȳtlian, lȳtlode, lȳtlod> lessen, diminish lȳtle - adjective; accusative plural of <lȳtel> little, small mæg - modal (preterit-present) verb, class V; 1st person singular present indicative of <magan, mæg, magon, meahte> may, be able to mæg - modal (preterit-present) verb, class V; 3rd person singular present indicative of <magan, mæg, magon, meahte> may, be able to mæge - modal (preterit-present) verb, class V; 3rd person singular present optative of <magan, mæg, magon, meahte> may, be able to mægen - noun, neuter; nominative singular of <mægen> might, strength man - strong noun, masculine; nominative singular of <monn> man, person manfæhðu - noun, feminine; accusative singular of <mānfǣhðu> wickedness mænig - adjective; nominative singular of <mænig> many manige - adjective; nominative plural of <monig> many manna - strong noun, masculine; genitive plural of <monn> man, person maþelode - weak verb, class II; 3rd person singular preterite of <maðelian, maðelode, maðelod> speak, address, harangue - adjective; anomalous comparative of <micel> much, great mǣg - noun, masculine; nominative singular of <mǣg> kinsman mǣgas - noun, masculine; nominative plural of <mǣg> kinsman mǣgþa - noun, feminine; genitive plural of <mǣgþ> tribe, nation mǣgþum - noun, feminine; dative plural of <mǣgþ> tribe, nation mǣgum - noun, masculine; dative plural of <mǣg> kinsman mǣla - noun, neuter; genitive plural of <mǣl> time, occasion mǣnan - weak verb, class I; infinitive of <mǣnan, mǣnde, mǣned> moan, relate, speak of māre - adjective; comparative of <mā> great, stout mǣw - noun, masculine; accusative singular of <mǣw> mew, sea-gull meaht - modal (preterit-present) verb, class V; 2nd person singular present indicative of <magan, mæg, magon, meahte> may, be able to meahte - modal (preterit-present) verb, class V; 3rd person singular preterite indicative of <magan, mæg, magon, meahte> may, be able to meahte - modal (preterit-present) verb, class V; 1st person singular preterite indicative of <magan, mæg, magon, meahte> may, be able to meahten - modal (preterit-present) verb, class V; 3rd person plural preterite subjunctive of <magan, mæg, magon, meahte> may, be able to mec - 1st person pronoun; accusative singular of <ic> I medodrince - noun, masculine; accusative singular of <medu-drinc> mead-drink men - strong noun, masculine; dative singular of <monn> man, person men - strong noun, masculine; accusative plural of <monn> man, person men - strong noun, masculine; nominative plural of <monn> man, person meodosetla - noun, neuter; genitive plural of <medu-setl> lit. mead-seat meoduhealle - noun, feminine; dative singular of <medu-heall> mead-hall meras - noun, masculine; nominative plural of <mere> mere, lake, sea meras - noun, masculine; accusative plural of <mere> mere, lake, sea mere - noun, masculine; nominative singular of <mere> mere, lake, sea merehuses - noun, neuter; genitive singular of <mere-hūs> sea-house merewērges - adjective; <mere-wērig> sea-weary metod - noun, masculine; nominative singular of <metod> creator metodes - noun, masculine; genitive singular of <metod> creator metudes - noun, masculine; genitive singular of <metod> creator - 1st person pronoun; accusative singular of <ic> I - 1st person pronoun; dative singular of <ic> I mētton - weak verb, class I; 3rd person plural preterite of <mētan, mētte, mēted> meet, find micle - adverb; <micel> much, very micle - adjective; nominative plural of <micel> much, great miclum - adverb; <micel> much, very mid - preposition; <mid> with mid - adverb; <mid> within middangeard - noun, masculine; accusative singular of <middan-eard> middle-earth, world middangeardes - noun, masculine; genitive singular of <middan-eard> middle-earth, world middeweard - adverb; <midde-weard> mid-ward, middling mihte - modal (preterit-present) verb, class V; 3rd person singular preterite optative of <magan, mæg, magon, meahte> may, be able to mihte - noun, feminine; accusative singular of <miht> might, power mihton - modal (preterit-present) verb, class V; 3rd person plural preterite indicative of <magan, mæg, magon, meahte> may, be able to mildust - adjective; superlative of <milde> mild, gentle miltse - strong noun, feminine; genitive singular of <milts> mercy, favor, kindness mine - noun, masculine; accusative singular of <mine> mind, affection mīla - noun, feminine; genitive plural of <mīl> mile mīn - 1st person pronoun; genitive singular of <ic> I mīne - 1st person pronoun; used as adjective <ic> I mīnne - 1st person pronoun; used as adjective <ic> I mīnum - 1st person pronoun; used as adjective <ic> I mon - strong noun, masculine; nominative singular of <monn> man, person monað - weak verb, class II; 3rd person singular present of <manian, manode, manod> warn, exhort, admonish moncynnes - noun, neuter; genitive singular of <monn-cynn> mankind monegum - adjective; dative plural feminine of <monig> many monna - strong noun, masculine; genitive plural of <monn> man, person monnum - strong noun, masculine; dative plural of <monn> man, person monðwǣrust - adjective; superlative of <monðwǣre> kind, gentle morgenne - strong noun, masculine; dative singular of <morgen> morning mōd - noun, neuter; nominative singular of <mōd> mood, mind mōdcearig - adjective; nominative singular masculine of <mōd-cearig> anxious, sorrowful, lit. mood-caring mōdes - noun, neuter; genitive singular of <mōd> mood, mind mōdgeþonc - noun, masculine; accusative singular of <mōdgeþonc> conception, purpose mōdsefan - weak noun, masculine; accusative singular of <mōd-sefa> mind, spirit mōdwlonc - adjective; nominative singular masculine of <mōd-wlonc> haughty, lit. mood-proud mōnðe - noun, masculine; dative singular of <mōnað> month mōr - noun, masculine; accusative singular of <mōr> moor; mountainous region mōr - noun, masculine; nominative singular of <mōr> moor; mountainous region mōras - noun, masculine; accusative plural of <mōr> moor; mountainous region mōre - noun, masculine; dative singular of <mōr> moor; mountainous region mōres - noun, masculine; genitive singular of <mōr> moor; mountainous region mōrum - noun, masculine; dative plural of <mōr> moor; mountainous region mundum - noun, feminine; dative plural of <mund> hand muð - noun, masculine; accusative singular of <mūð> mouth mūðan - noun, masculine; dative singular of <mūða> mouth of a river, estuary mūðan - noun, masculine; accusative singular of <mūða> mouth of a river, estuary mycel - adjective; nominative singular feminine of <micel> much, great mycel - adjective; accusative singular neuter of <micel> much, great næbbe - contraction; adverb <ne> not + weak verb, class III; 3rd person singular present subjunctive <habban, hæfde, hæfd> have, possess nacan - noun, masculine; genitive singular of <naca> boat, ship næfde - adverb; <ne> not + weak verb, class III; 3rd person singular preterite <habban, hæfde, hæfd> have, possess naman - weak noun, masculine; dative singular of <nama> name næs - contraction; adverb <ne> not + anomalous verb; 3rd person singular preterite indicative of <wesan> be, happen - adverb; <nā> no, nor, not (at all) nǣfre - contraction; adverb <ne> not + adverb; <ǣfre> ever, always nālæs - adverb; <nālæs> not at all nāles - adverb; <nālæs> not at all nān - contraction; adverb <ne> not + indefinite article; <ān> a, an, one nǣnig - contraction; adverb <ne> not + adjective; <ǣnig> any nāp - strong verb, class I; 3rd person singular preterite of <nīpan, nāp, nipon, nipen> grow dark, obscure nǣre - contraction; adverb <ne> not + anomalous verb; 3rd person singular preterite subjunctive of <wesan> be, happen nǣron - contraction; adverb <ne> not + anomalous verb; 3rd person plural preterite indicative of <wesan> be, happen nāwðer - conjunction; <nā-hwæðer> neither...nor ne - adverb; <ne> not nearo - adjective; accusative singular feminine of <nearu> narrow; full of hardship nemde - weak verb, class I; 3rd person singular preterite of <nemnan, nemde, nemed> name, call nergend - noun, masculine; <nergend> preserver, savior nēah - adverb; <nēah> near nēalǣcan - weak verb, class I; infinitive of <nēalǣcan, nēalǣcte, nēalǣced> approach, draw near nēata - noun, neuter; genitive plural of <nēat> ox, cow nēotan - strong verb, class II; infinitive of <nēotan, nēat, nudon, noden> use, employ nigonum - numeral; dative plural of <nigon> nine niht - noun, feminine; accusative singular of <niht> night nihta - noun, feminine; genitive plural of <niht> night nihte - noun, feminine; dative singular of <niht> night nihtscua - noun, masculine; nominative singular of <nihts-cūa> night's cover nihtwaco - noun, feminine; accusative singular of <niht-waco> night-watch nis - contraction; adverb <ne> not + anomalous verb; 3rd person singular present indicative of <is> be, become, exist nið - noun, masculine; <nīð> enmity, hostility nīðhēdige - adjective; nominative plural masculine of <nīð-hēdig> lit. battle-resolved nīwena - adjective; genitive plural of <nīwe> new, fresh Noe - proper noun, masculine; <Noe> Noah nolde - contraction; adverb <ne> not + anomalous verb; 3rd person singular preterite indicative of <willan> wish, be willing noldon - contraction; adverb <ne> not + anomalous verb; 3rd person plural preterite indicative of <willan> wish, be willing norþan - adverb; <norðan> from the north norðeweard - adverb; <norð-weard> northward norðeweardum - adjective; dative singular neuter of <norð-weard> northward Norðhymbre - proper noun, masculine plural; accusative of <Norð-hymbre> Northumbrians, Northumbria Norðhymbrum - proper noun, masculine plural; dative of <Norð-hymbre> Northumbrians, Northumbria Norðmanna - proper noun, masculine; genitive plural of <Norð-mann> Norwegian, lit. north-man Norðmen - proper noun, masculine; nominative plural of <Norð-mann> Norwegian, lit. north-man Norðmen - proper noun, masculine; accusative plural of <Norð-mann> Norwegian, lit. north-man norðor - adverb; comparative of <norð> north(wards) Norðweg - proper noun, neuter; nominative singular of <Norðweg> Norway, lit. way leading north nōht - adjective; <nā> no, not + noun, neuter; accusative <wiht> whit, thing - adverb; <nū> now nytwyrðoste - adjective; superlative <nyt-wyrðe> useful of - preposition; <of> from, of ofer - preposition; <ofer> over, across oferfēran - weak verb, class I; infinitive of <oferfēran, oferfērde, oferfēred> traverse ofslægen - strong verb, class VI; past participle of <ofslean, ofslōh, ofslōgon, ofslægen> slay, destroy ofslægene - strong verb, class VI; past participle of <ofslean, ofslōh, ofslōgon, ofslægen> slay, destroy ofslægenne - strong verb, class VI; past participle of <ofslean, ofslōh, ofslōgon, ofslægen> slay, destroy ofslōgon - strong verb, class VI; 3rd person plural preterite of <ofslean, ofslōh, ofslōgon, ofslægen> slay, destroy oft - adverb; <oft> often, frequently oftēah - strong verb, class II; 3rd person singular preterite of <oftēon, oftēah, oftugon, oftogen> deny, deprive on - preposition; <on> on(to), upon on hoh - preposition; <on> on(to), upon + noun, masculine; <hōh> heel; promontory oncwæð - strong verb, class V; 3rd person singular preterite of <oncweðan, oncwæð, oncwǣdon, oncweden> answer, reply to ond - conjunction; <and> and onfēng - strong verb, class VII; 3rd person singular preterite of <onfōn, onfēng, onfēngon, onfangen> accept, receive onfundon - strong verb, class III; 3rd person plural preterite of <onfindan, onfond, onfundon, onfunden> find out, realize ongan - strong verb, class III; 3rd person singular preterite of <onginnan, ongonn, ongunnon, ongunnen> begin, attempt ongeat - strong verb, class V; 3rd person singular preterite of <ongietan, ongeat, ongēaton, ongieten> grasp, understand ongēan - adverb; <ongēan> against, back ongēn - preposition; <ongēan> against, back onmunden - preterite-present verb, class IV; 3rd person plural preterite subjunctive of <onmunan, onman, onmunon, onmunde> esteem, remember, think worthy onslǣpte - strong verb, class VII; 3rd person singular preterite of <onslǣpan, onslēp, onslēpon, onslǣpen> fall asleep onstealde - weak verb, class I; 3rd person singular preterite of <onstellan, onstealde, onsteled> establish, institute ord - noun, masculine; accusative singular of <ord> source, beginning - preposition; <oð> until, up to, as far as - adverbial conjunction; <oð> until - adverbial conjunction; <oð> until oþ þæt - adverbial conjunction; <oð þæt> until oð þæt - adverbial conjunction; <oð þæt> until oðer - adjective; <ōðer> other, next, second oþþe - correlative conjunction; <oððe> or oððe - correlative conjunction; <oððe> or oðwand - strong verb, class III; 3rd person singular preterite of <oðwindan, oðwand, oðwundon, oðwunden> escape Ōhthere - proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Ōhthere> Ohthere Ōsrīc - proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Ōsrīc> Osric Ōswold - proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Ōswold> Oswold ōðre - adjective; dative singular feminine of <ōðer> other, next, second ōðru - adjective used as substantive; nominative plural of <ōðer> other, next, second port - noun, masculine; nominative singular of <port> port, harbor radost - adjective; superlative of <hraðe> quick, hasty rǣsde - weak verb, class I; 3rd person singular preterite of <rǣsan, rǣsde, rǣsed> rush, hasten regn - noun, masculine; accusative singular of <regn> rain reste - noun, feminine; dative singular of <rest> rest, resting place reðe - adjective; nominative singular masculine of <rēðe> fierce, cruel ridon - strong verb, class I; 3rd person plural preterite of <rīdan, rād, ridon, riden> ride riodan - strong verb, class I; 3rd person plural preterite of <rīdan, rād, ridon, riden> ride rīces - weak noun, neuter; genitive singular of <rīce> kingdom, reign roderum - noun, masculine; dative plural of <rodor> sky, heaven rume - adverb; <rūm> roomy, spacious sæs - noun, feminine; nominative plural <sǣ> sea, lake - noun, feminine; accusative singular of <sǣ> sea, lake - noun, feminine; nominative singular of <sǣ> sea, lake sǣde - weak verb, class III; 3rd person singular preterite of <secgan, sægde, sægd> say sǣfōre - noun, feminine; dative singular of <sǣ-fōr> sea-voyage sǣlan - weak verb, class I; infinitive of <sǣlan, sǣlde, sǣled> bind sǣriman - noun, masculine; dative singular of <sǣ-rima> seashore, seacoast sceal - modal (preterit-present) verb, class IV; 1st person singular present indicative of <sculan, sceal, sculon, scolde> shall, ought to sceal - modal (preterit-present) verb, class IV; 3rd person singular present indicative of <sculan, sceal, sculon, scolde> shall, ought to sceaþena - weak noun, masculine; genitive plural of <sceaða> enemy, warrior Scedelandum - proper noun, neuter; dative plural of <Scedeland> Danish land sceolde - modal (preterit-present) verb, class IV; 3rd person singular preterite indicative of <sculan, sceal, sculon, scolde> shall, ought to sceolde - modal (preterit-present) verb, class IV; 1st person singular preterite indicative of <sculan, sceal, sculon, scolde> shall, ought to sceolden - modal (preterit-present) verb, class IV; 3rd person plural preterite subjunctive of <sculan, sceal, sculon, scolde> shall, ought to sceoldon - modal (preterit-present) verb, class IV; 3rd person plural preterite indicative of <sculan, sceal, sculon, scolde> shall, ought to scile - modal (preterit-present) verb, class IV; 3rd person singular present optative of <sculan, sceal, sculon, scolde> shall, ought to scip - noun, neuter; accusative singular of <scip> ship scipa - noun, neuter; genitive plural of <scip> ship scipu - noun, neuter; accusative plural of <scip> ship scipu - noun, neuter; nominative plural of <scip> ship scipum - noun, neuter; dative plural of <scip> ship scīr - noun, feminine; nominative singular of <scīr> shire, district, division Scīrincges hēale - proper noun, masculine; dative singular of <Scīringes-hēal> Skiringssal Scīringes hēal - proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Scīringes-hēal> Skiringssal Scīringes hēal - proper noun, masculine; accusative singular of <Scīringes-hēal> Skiringssal scolde - modal (preterit-present) verb, class IV; 3rd person singular preterite indicative of <sculan, sceal, sculon, scolde> shall, ought to scome - noun, feminine; dative singular of <scomu> shame sculan - modal (preterit-present) verb, class IV; 3rd person plural present indicative of <sculan, sceal, sculon, scolde> shall, ought to scūrum - noun, masculine; dative plural of <scūr> shower Scyld Scēfing - proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Scyld Scēfing> Scyld Scefing Scyldes - proper noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Scyld> Scyld scypa - noun, neuter; accusative plural of <scip> ship scypene - noun, neuter; dative singular of <scypen> shed scyppend - noun, masculine; nominative singular of <scieppend> shaper, creator scyppendes - noun, masculine; genitive singular of <scieppend> shaper, creator scypu - noun, neuter; accusative plural of <scip> ship se - definite article; nominative singular masculine of <se, sēo, ðæt> the se - demonstrative used as 3rd person pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <sē, sēo, ðæt> he, she, it sealtȳþa - strong noun, feminine; genitive plural of <sealt-ȳð> lit. salt-wave secgan - weak verb, class III; infinitive of <secgan, sægde, sægd> say secgas - noun, masculine; accusative plural of <secg> man, warrior seglian - weak verb, class II; infinitive of <seglian, seglode, seglod> sail segnade - weak verb, class II; 3rd person singular preterite of <segnian, segnade, segnad> bless, consecrate sele - noun, masculine; accusative singular of <sele> hall, house selesecgas - noun, masculine; accusative plural of <sele-secg> retainer, lit. hall hero selfa - reflexive pronoun; nominative singular of <self> self, same selfum - reflexive pronoun; dative singular of <self> self, same sende - weak verb, class I; 3rd person singular preterite of <sendan, sende, sened> send seofedun - weak verb, class II; 3rd person plural preterite of <seofian, seofade, seofad> sigh, lament sex - numeral; <siex> six - demonstrative used as 3rd person pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <sē, sēo, ðæt> he, she, it - demonstrative used as relative pronoun; nominative singular masculine of <sē, sēo, ðæt> who, which, that sēlestena - adjective; comparative <sēlla> better sēo - demonstrative used as 3rd person pronoun; nominative singular feminine of <sē, sēo, ðæt> he, she, it sēo - definite article; nominative singular feminine of <se, sēo, ðæt> the sēon - strong verb, class V; infinitive of <sēon, seah, sǣgon, segen> see, look sidne - adjective; accusative singular of <sīd> wide, extensive Sigene - proper noun, feminine; dative singular of <Sigen> Seine siglu - noun, neuter; accusative plural of <sigle> brooch, jewel, necklace sigora - noun, masculine; genitive plural of <sigor> victory Sillende - proper noun, neuter; nominative singular of <Sillende> Zealand simle - adverb; <simle> ever, always sinces - noun, neuter; genitive singular of <sinc> jewels, riches, treasure sincþege - noun, feminine; accusative singular of <sinc-þegu> lit. treasure receipt sing - strong verb, class III; 2nd person singular imperative of <singan, sang, sungon, sungen> sing, compose singan - strong verb, class III; infinitive of <singan, sang, sungon, sungen> sing, compose singende - strong verb, class III; present participle of <singan, sang, sungon, sungen> sing, compose sint - anomalous verb; 3rd person plural present indicative of <is> be, become, exist sinum - 3rd person pronoun; used as adjective <hē, hēo, hit> he, she, it siððan - adverb; <siððan> since, when, afterwards siþþan - adverb; <siððan> since, when, afterwards sīo - definite article; nominative singular feminine of <se, sēo, ðæt> the sīþas - noun, masculine; accusative plural of <sīð> journey, voyage slāt - strong verb, class I; 3rd person singular preterite of <slītan, slāt, sliton, sliten> slit, tear slīþen - adjective; nominative singular feminine of <slīðen> cruel, dire, evil smæl - adjective; nominative singular of <smæl> small, narrow smalost - adjective; superlative of <smæl> small, narrow smælre - adjective; comparative of <smæl> small, narrow snīwde - weak verb, class I; 3rd person singular preterite of <snīwan, snīwde, snīwed> snow somed - adverb; <somod> also, together song - noun, masculine; accusative singular of <song> song sorg - noun, feminine; nominative singular of <sorg> sorrow, grief, distress sorge - noun, feminine; dative singular of <sorg> sorrow, grief, distress sōhte - weak verb, class I; 1st person singular preterite of <sēcan, sōhte, sōht> seek, desire sōna - adverb; <sōna> immediately sōþe - noun, neuter; dative singular of <sōð> truth sōðgied - noun, neuter; accusative singular of <sōð-gied> lit. true tale spedum - noun, feminine; dative plural of <spēd> means, riches, success sprang - strong verb, class III; 3rd person singular preterite of <springan, sprang, sprungon, sprungen> spring, burst forth, spread sprecan - strong verb, class V; infinitive of <sprecan, spræc, sprǣcon, sprecen> speak, say sprecende - strong verb, class V; present participle of <sprecan, spræc, sprǣcon, sprecen> speak, say stælhergum - noun, masculine; dative plural of <stæl-here> marauding army stæðweallas - noun, masculine; accusative plural of <stæð-weall> shore-wall stānclifu - noun, neuter; accusative plural of <stān-clif> stony cliff stearn - noun, masculine; nominative singular of <stearn> tern, sea-swallow stefnan - noun, masculine; dative singular of <stefn> stem; prow, stern stēorbord - noun, neuter; accusative singular of <stēor-bord> starboard, lit. stear(ing)-board stigon - strong verb, class I; 3rd person plural preterite of <stīgan, stāh, stigon, stigen> rise, ascend stīð - adjective; nominative singular neuter of <stīð> stiff, stern, brave stormas - noun, masculine; nominative plural of <storm> storm, tempest; attack stōd - strong verb, class VI; 3rd person singular preterite of <standan, stōd, stōdon, standen> stand stōdon - strong verb, class VI; 3rd person plural preterite of <standan, stōd, stōdon, standen> stand stōwum - strong noun, feminine; dative plural of <stōw> place strang - adjective; nominative singular masculine of <strang> strong strēamas - noun, masculine; accusative plural of <strēam> stream sum - adjective used as substantive; nominative singular masculine of <sum> some, a certain sum - adjective; nominative singular masculine of <sum> some, a certain sume - adjective used as substantive; nominative plural of <sum> some, a certain sumera - noun, masculine; dative singular of <sumor> summer sumre - adjective; dative singular feminine of <sum> some, a certain sumum - adjective; dative singular masculine of <sum> some, a certain sumum - adjective; dative plural of <sum> some, a certain sund - noun, neuter; accusative singular of <sund> sea, water sunu - noun, masculine; nominative singular of <sunu> son sūð - adverb; <sūð> south(wards) sūðeweardum - adjective; dative singular of <sūðe-weard> southward Sūðseaxum - proper noun, masculine plural; dative of <Sūð-Seaxan> South Saxons, Sussex sūðstæðe - noun, neuter; dative singular of <sūð-stæð> south shore swa - adverb; <swā> so, thus swā - adverb; <swā> so, thus swā - adverbial conjunction; <swā> so, thus swā hwelc swā - pronoun; <swā hwilc swā> whosoever swearte - adjective; nominative plural masculine of <sweart> dark, black, swarthy swefn - noun, neuter; accusative singular of <swefn> dream sweotule - adverb; <sweotole> clearly, plainly swēg - noun, masculine; accusative singular of <swēg> noise, sound Swēoland - proper noun, neuter; nominative singular of <Swēo-land> Sweden swiftran - adjective; comparative <swift> swift swilc - pronoun; <swilc> such swiðe - adverb; <swīðe> very, exceedingly swīðe - adverb; <swīðe> very, exceedingly swīþe - adverb; <swīðe> very, exceedingly swīþor - adverb; comparative of <swīðe> very, exceedingly swīþost - adverb; superlative of <swīðe> very, exceedingly Swīðulf - proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Swīðulf> Swithulf swīþust - adverb; superlative of <swīðe> very, exceedingly swogan - strong verb, class VII; infinitive of <swogan, swēog, swēogon, swōgen> resound, roar swylce - adverb; <swilce> such (manner), thus, likewise swȳþe - adverb; <swīðe> very, exceedingly swȳðe - adverb; <swīðe> very, exceedingly sylf - reflexive pronoun; <self> self, same sylfum - reflexive pronoun; dative singular of <self> self, same symble - noun, neuter; dative singular of <symbel> feast symle - adverb; <simle> ever, always synd - anomalous verb; 3rd person plural present indicative of <is> be, become, exist syððan - adverb; <syððan> afterwards syðþan - adverb; <syððan> afterwards syx - numeral; <siex> six syxhund - numeral; <siex-hund> six hundred syxtig - numeral; <siextig> sixty tæt - definite article; nominative singular neuter of <se, sēo, ðæt> the tēode - weak verb, class II; 3rd person singular preterite of <tēon, tēode, tēodod> adorn, settle timbran - weak verb, class I; infinitive of <timbran, timbrede, timbred> build, construct timbredon - weak verb, class I; 3rd person plural preterite of <timbran, timbrede, timbred> build, construct tīde - noun, feminine; dative singular of <tīd> time tīde - noun, feminine; accusative singular of <tīd> time to - adverb; <tō> as, for - preposition; <tō> (in)to tō hwon - interrogative pronoun; instrumental singular of <tō hwon> why tō þæs - adverb; <tō þæs> so tōemnes - preposition; <tōemnes> alongside tōfōr - strong verb, class VI; 3rd person plural preterite of <tō-faran, tō-fōr, tō-fōron, tō-faren> disperse, separate trymedon - weak verb, class I; 3rd person plural preterite of <trymian, trymede, trymed> exhort, encourage - numeral; nominative plural neuter of <twēgen, twā, tū> twain, two - numeral; accusative plural neuter of <twēgen, twā, tū> twain, two twām - numeral; feminine plural of <twēgen, twā, tū> twain, two twelfe - numeral; <twelf> twelve tȳn - numeral; <tīen> ten þa - adverbial conjunction; <þā> then, when þa - demonstrative article; accusative singular feminine of <se, sēo, ðæt> that þa - demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular feminine of <sē, sēo, ðæt> that þanon - adverb; <ðonan> thence, from there þær - adverb; <þǣr> there, where þæs - definite article; genitive singular masculine of <se, sēo, ðæt> the þæs - demonstrative used as 3rd person pronoun; genitive singular masculine of <sē, sēo, ðæt> he, she, it þæs - definite article; genitive singular neuter of <se, sēo, ðæt> the þæs - demonstrative used as 3rd person pronoun; genitive singular neuter of <sē, sēo, ðæt> he, she, it þæs - demonstrative pronoun; genitive singular neuter of <sē, sēo, ðæt> that þæs - adverb; <þæs> so ðæt - demonstrative article; accusative singular neuter of <se, sēo, ðæt> that þæt - demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular neuter of <sē, sēo, ðæt> that þæt - demonstrative used as relative pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <sē, sēo, ðæt> who, which, that þæt - definite article; nominative singular neuter of <se, sēo, ðæt> the þæt - subordinating conjunction; <þæt> that þæt - demonstrative used as relative pronoun; nominative singular neuter of <sē, sēo, ðæt> who, which, that þæt - demonstrative article; accusative singular neuter of <se, sēo, ðæt> that þæt - conjunction; <þæt> so/in order that þæt - definite article; accusative singular neuter of <se, sēo, ðæt> the ðæt - subordinating conjunction; <þæt> that þæt - demonstrative pronoun; accusative singular neuter of <sē, sēo, ðæt> that ðā - adverb; <þā> then, when ðā - definite article; nominative plural of <se, sēo, ðæt> the þā - demonstrative pronoun; nominative plural of <sē, sēo, ðæt> that þā - demonstrative used as 3rd person pronoun; nominative plural of <sē, sēo, ðæt> he, she, it þā - definite article; accusative singular feminine of <se, sēo, ðæt> the ðā - definite article; accusative singular feminine of <se, sēo, ðæt> the þā - adverb; <þā> then, when þā - definite article; nominative plural of <se, sēo, ðæt> the ðā - definite article; accusative plural of <se, sēo, ðæt> the þā - adverbial conjunction; <þā> then, when þā - demonstrative article; accusative plural of <se, sēo, ðæt> that þā - definite article; accusative plural of <se, sēo, ðæt> the þāh - strong verb, class I; 3rd person singular preterite of <ðēon, ðāh, ðigon, ðigen> thrive, prosper þām - definite article; dative singular masculine of <se, sēo, ðæt> the ðǣm - demonstrative used as 3rd person pronoun; dative singular masculine of <sē, sēo, ðæt> he, she, it þām - demonstrative used as relative pronoun; dative singular masculine of <sē, sēo, ðæt> who, which, that þǣm - definite article; dative singular neuter of <se, sēo, ðæt> the þǣm - definite article; dative singular masculine of <se, sēo, ðæt> the ðǣm - definite article; dative singular masculine of <se, sēo, ðæt> the þǣm - demonstrative used as 3rd person pronoun; dative plural of <sē, sēo, ðæt> he, she, it ðǣm - definite article; dative plural of <se, sēo, ðæt> the þǣm - demonstrative used as 3rd person pronoun; dative singular neuter of <sē, sēo, ðæt> he, she, it þǣm - demonstrative article; dative singular neuter of <se, sēo, ðæt> that þǣm - demonstrative article; dative plural of <se, sēo, ðæt> that þǣr - adverb; <þǣr> there, where þāra - definite article; genitive plural of <se, sēo, ðæt> the þāra - demonstrative pronoun; genitive plural of <sē, sēo, ðæt> that þǣre - definite article; dative singular feminine of <se, sēo, ðæt> the þǣrinne - adverb; <þǣr inne> therein þǣrtō - adverb; <þǣr tō> thereto þās - demonstrative article; accusative singular feminine of <ðes, ðēos, ðis> this þās - demonstrative article; accusative plural of <ðes, ðēos, ðis> this ðe - relative particle; <þe> that, which, who þe - relative particle; <þe> that, which, who þe - conjunction; <þe> than, where þeahte - weak verb, class I; 3rd person singular preterite of <ðeccan, ðeahte, ðeaht> cover, conceal ðearfe - noun, feminine; dative singular of <ðearf> need, requirement þegn - strong noun, masculine; nominative singular of <þegn> thane, warrior þegnas - strong noun, masculine; nominative plural of <þegn> thane, warrior þence - weak verb, class I; 1st person singular present of <ðencan, ðōhte, ðōht> think, intend, resolve þenceð - weak verb, class I; 3rd person singular present of <ðencan, ðōhte, ðōht> think, intend, resolve þē - relative particle; <þe> that, which, who þē - conjunction; <ðē> as þē - adverb; <þȳ> the þēah - adverb; <þēah> yet, though, however þēah - adverbial conjunction; <þēah> yet, though, however þēah þe - conjunction; <ðēah ðe> although, even if þēaw - noun, masculine; nominative singular of <ðēaw> habit, custom þēh - adverbial conjunction; <þēah> yet, though, however þēna - strong noun, masculine; nominative plural of <þegn> thane, warrior þēodcyninga - noun, masculine; genitive plural of <ðēod-cyning> lit. people-king þider - adverb; <þider> thither þis - demonstrative article; nominative singular neuter of <ðes, ðēos, ðis> this þis - demonstrative pronoun; nominative singular neuter of <ðēs, ðēos, ðis> this þissum - demonstrative article; dative singular neuter of <ðes, ðēos, ðis> this þīs - demonstrative article; instrumental singular masculine of <ðes, ðēos, ðis> this þolian - weak verb, class II; infinitive of <ðolian, ðolade, ðolad> endure, hold out þon - adverb; <þonne> then, when þonan - adverb; <ðonan> thence, from there þonces - noun, masculine; genitive singular of <ðanc> thanks, grace, mercy þone - definite article; accusative singular masculine of <se, sēo, ðæt> the þone - demonstrative used as personal pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <sē, sēo, ðæt> he, she, it ðone - definite article; accusative singular masculine of <se, sēo, ðæt> the þone - demonstrative used as relative pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <sē, sēo, ðæt> who, which, that þone - demonstrative used as 3rd person pronoun; accusative singular masculine of <sē, sēo, ðæt> he, she, it ðonne - adverb; <þonne> then, when þonne - adverb; <þonne> then, when þrēatum - noun, masculine; dative plural of <ðrēat> band, troop þrēo - numeral; nominative plural neuter of <þrīe, þrēo, þrēo> three þrēora - numeral; genitive plural of <þrīe, þrēo, þrēo> three þrim - numeral; dative plural of <þrīe, þrēo, þrēo> three þringan - strong verb, class III; infinitive of <þringan, þrong, þrungon, þrungen> throng, crowd, press þrītig - numeral; <þrītig> thirty þrōwade - weak verb, class II; 1st person singular preterite of <ðrōwian, ðrōwade, ðrōwad> endure, suffer þrym - numeral; dative plural of <þrīe, þrēo, þrēo> three þrym - noun, masculine; nominative singular of <þrymm> glory, renown þurh - preposition; <þurh> through, by (means of) þurhwōd - strong verb, class VI; 3rd person singular preterite of <ðurhwadan, ðurhwōd, ðurhwōdon, ðurhwaden> pierce, penetrate þū - 2nd person pronoun; nominative singular of <ðū> you ðūhte - weak verb, class I; 3rd person singular preterite of <ðyncan, ðūhte, geðūht> seem, appear; think Þūrstānes - proper noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Þūrstān> Thurstan þyder - adverb; <þyder> thither þyssum - demonstrative pronoun; dative singular neuter of <ðēs, ðēos, ðis> this ðysum - demonstrative article; dative singular neuter of <ðes, ðēos, ðis> this þȳ - definite article; instrumental singular neuter of <se, sēo, ðæt> the ufeweardum - adjective; dative singular of <ufe-weard> upward under - preposition; <under> under unhēanlīce - adverb; <unhēanlīce> not disgracefully, not ignobly unnyt - adjective; nominative singular neuter of <unnyt> useless unstilnesse - strong noun, feminine; accusative singular of <unstilnes> disturbance, tumult unwāclīce - adverb; <unwāclīce> bravely, unwaveringly unwealtran - adjective; comparative <unwealt> steady up - adverb; <ūp> up, upwards uppe - adverb; <uppe> up, above urnon - strong verb, class III; 3rd person plural preterite of <yrnan, arn, urnon, urnen> run usser - 1st person pronoun; genitive plural of <ic> I ūhtna - weak noun, masculine; genitive plural of <ūhta> dawn, twilight ūp - adverb; <ūp> up, upwards ūre - 1st person pronoun; genitive plural of <ic> I ūrigfeþra - adjective; nominative singular masculine of <ūrig-feðera> lit. dewey-feathered ūt - adverb; <ūt> out ūtermere - noun, masculine; accusative singular of <ūter-mere> outer sea, open sea ūteweardum - adjective; dative singular masculine of <ūte-weard> outward ūþon - preterite-present verb, class III; 3rd person plural preterite subjunctive of <unnan, ann, unnon, ūðe> grant, bestow wadan - strong verb, class VI; infinitive of <wadan, wōd, wōdon, waden> wade, stride over wæge - noun, masculine; dative singular of <wǣg> wave, billow wæglīðendum - noun, masculine; dative plural of <wæg-līðend> lit. wave-traveler wægþæl - noun, neuter; accusative singular of <wæg-þel> ship, lit. wave-planking wæl - noun, neuter; nominative singular of <wæl> carnage; battlefield waldend - noun, masculine; nominative singular of <wealdend> wielder, ruler, lord wæle - noun, neuter; dative singular of <wæl> carnage; battlefield wællgrim - adjective; nominative singular masculine of <wællgrim> fierce, cruel wælsleahta - strong noun, masculine; genitive plural of <wælsleaht> slaughter, carnage wælspere - noun, neuter; accusative singular of <wæl-spere> deadly spear warað - weak verb, class II; 3rd person singular present of <warian, warode, warod> guard, protect, occupy wæs - anomalous verb; 3rd person singular preterite indicative of <wesan> be, happen wæs - anomalous verb; 1st person singular preterite indicative of <wesan> be, happen wætrum - noun, neuter; dative plural of <wæter> water waþema - noun, masculine; genitive plural of <waðum> wave, sea wǣg - noun, masculine; accusative singular of <wǣg> wave, billow wǣpna - noun, neuter; genitive plural of <wǣpen> weapon wǣran - anomalous verb; 3rd person plural preterite indicative of <wesan> be, happen wǣre - anomalous verb; 3rd person singular preterite subjunctive of <wesan> be, happen wǣron - anomalous verb; 3rd person plural preterite indicative of <wesan> be, happen wǣrun - anomalous verb; 3rd person plural preterite indicative of <wesan> be, happen wāt - preterite-present verb, class I; 3rd person singular present indicative of <witan, wāt, witon, wiste> know, observe wealdend - noun, masculine; nominative singular of <wealdend> wielder, ruler, lord wealle - noun, masculine; dative singular of <weall> wall, rampart weard - noun, masculine; nominative singular of <weard> ward, guard, keeper weard - noun, masculine; <weard> ward, guard, keeper weard - noun, masculine; accusative singular of <weard> ward, guard, keeper wearð - strong verb, class III; 3rd person singular preterite of <weorðan, wearð, wurdon, worden> become, happen wearþ - strong verb, class III; 3rd person singular preterite of <weorðan, wearð, wurdon, worden> become, happen Wedra - proper noun, neuter; genitive plural of <Weder> Weder weg - noun, masculine; accusative singular of <weg> way wel hwǣr - adverb; <wel hwǣr> almost everywhere wendan - weak verb, class I; infinitive of <wendan, wende, wended> wend, turn, go wenede - weak verb, class I; 3rd person singular preterite of <wennan, wenede, wened> accustom; entertain (joyfully) weold - strong verb, class VII; 3rd person singular preterite of <wealdan, wēold, wēoldon, wealden> wield, direct weorc - noun, neuter; accusative singular of <weorc> work, deed weorðan - strong verb, class III; infinitive of <weorðan, wearð, wurdon, worden> become, happen weorðlīcost - adverb; superlative of <weorðlīc> worthily, honorably weorðmyndum - noun, feminine; dative plural of <weorðmynd> glory, honor, reverence weoruldhāde - noun, masculine; dative singular of <weorold hād> secular life wer - noun, masculine; accusative singular of <wer> man wera - noun, masculine; genitive plural of <wer> man weras - noun, masculine; nominative plural of <wer> man werede - weak verb, class I; 3rd person singular preterite of <werian, werede, wered> wear; defend, protect weroda - noun, neuter; genitive plural of <werod> army, band, host werum - noun, masculine; dative plural of <wer> man Westseaxna - proper noun, masculine plural; genitive of <West-Seaxan> West Saxons, Wessex - 1st person pronoun; nominative plural of <ic> I wēman - weak verb, class I; infinitive of <wēman, wēmde, wēmed> attract, entice, treat wēox - strong verb, class VII; 3rd person singular preterite of <weaxan, wēox, wēoxon, wēaxen> wax, grow wērig - adjective; nominative singular masculine of <wērig> weary, exhausted wērige - adjective; nominative plural of <wērig> weary, exhausted wērigmōd - adjective; <wērig> weary, exhausted + noun, neuter; nominative singular of <mōd> mood, mind wif - noun, neuter; nominative plural of <wīf> wife, woman wigan - noun, masculine; nominative plural of <wiga> warrior Wiht - proper noun, feminine; accusative singular of <Wiht> (Isle of) Wight wilde - adjective; accusative plural of <wilde> wild, untamed wilgesīþas - noun, masculine; nominative plural of <wilgesīð> dear companion wille - anomalous verb; 3rd person singular present subjunctive of <willan> wish, be willing wille - anomalous verb; 1st person singular present indicative of <willan> wish, be willing wille - anomalous verb; 3rd person singular present indicative of <willan> wish, be willing willeburnan - noun, feminine; nominative plural of <willeburne> well-spring wind - noun, masculine; accusative singular of <wind> wind windan - strong verb, class III; infinitive of <windan, wond, wundon, wunden> wind, twist, turn winedryhten - noun, masculine; accusative singular of <wine-dryhten> lit. friend-lord winemǣga - noun, masculine; genitive plural of <wine-mǣg> dear-, lit. friend-kinsman winemāgas - noun, masculine; accusative plural of <wine-mǣg> dear-, lit. friend-kinsman winemǣgum - noun, masculine; dative plural of <wine-mǣg> dear-, lit. friend-kinsman Winteceastre - proper noun, feminine; dative singular of <Winte-ceastre> Winchester winter - noun, masculine; accusative singular of <winter> winter, year wintercearig - adjective; nominative singular masculine of <winter-cearig> sorrowful, lit. winter-caring wintra - noun, masculine; genitive plural of <winter> winter, year wisse - preterite-present verb, class I; 3rd person singular preterite indicative of <witan, wāt, witon, wiste> know, observe wiste - noun, feminine; dative singular of <wist> feast, food, provision wið - preposition; <wið> against, along wið ēastan - adverb; <wið ēastan> to the east wið sūðan - adverb; <wið sūðan> to the south wið uppon - adverb; <wið uppan> upwards, above wiðstondan - strong verb, class VI; infinitive of <wiðstandan, wiðstōd, wiðstōdon, wiðstanden> withstand, resist wīcgerēfa - noun, masculine; nominative singular of <wīc-gerēfa> lit. wick-reeve wīcingas - noun, masculine; accusative plural of <wīcing> Viking, pirate wīcode - weak verb, class II; 3rd person singular preterite of <wician, wīcode, wīcod> camp, lodge wīde - adverb; <wīde> widely, far Wīferþ - proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Wīferþ> Wiferth wīfes - noun, neuter; genitive singular of <wīf> wife, woman wīg - noun, neuter; nominative singular of <wīg> war, strife Wīgelmes - proper noun, masculine; genitive singular of <Wīgelm> Wigelin wīgend - noun, masculine; nominative plural of <wīgend> warrior wīgplegan - noun, masculine; instrumental singular of <wīg-plega> battle, lit. war-play wīngāl - adjective; nominative singular masculine of <wīn-gāl> intoxicated, lit. wine-gay Wīstān - proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Wīstān> Wistan wlonc - adjective; nominative singular masculine of <wlonc> proud wolcnum - noun, masculine; dative plural of <wolcen> sky, heaven wolde - anomalous verb; 3rd person singular preterite indicative of <willan> wish, be willing woldon - anomalous verb; 3rd person plural preterite indicative of <willan> wish, be willing wonnan - adjective; dative singular masculine of <wonn> dark word - noun, neuter; accusative plural of <word> word, speech wordgyd - strong noun, neuter; accusative singular of <wordgyd> lay, elegy wordon - noun, neuter; instrumental plural of <word> word, speech wordum - noun, neuter; dative plural of <word> word, speech woroldāre - noun, feminine; accusative singular of <worold-ār> worldly honor woruld - noun, feminine; accusative singular of <woruld> world wōd - strong verb, class VI; 1st person singular preterite of <wadan, wōd, wōdon, waden> wade, stride over wōdon - strong verb, class VI; 3rd person plural preterite of <wadan, wōd, wōdon, waden> wade, stride over wræc - strong verb, class V; 3rd person singular preterite of <wrecan, wræc, wræcon, wrecen> wreak, force; tell, utter wræccan - weak noun, masculine; genitive singular of <wrecca> wretch, exile wræclāst - strong noun, masculine; nominative singular of <wræc-lāst> path of exile, lit. misery track wræclāstas - strong noun, masculine; accusative plural of <wræc-lāst> path of exile, lit. misery track wræcon - strong verb, class V; 3rd person plural preterite of <wrecan, wræc, wræcon, wrecen> wreak, force; tell, utter wrāþra - adjective; genitive plural of <wrāð> wroth, angry wreah - strong verb, class I; 3rd person singular preterite of <wrēon, wrāh, wrigon, wrigen> hide, cover wrecan - strong verb, class V; infinitive of <wrecan, wræc, wræcon, wrecen> wreak, force; tell, utter wucum - noun, feminine; dative plural of <wucu> week wuldorcyninges - noun, neuter; <wuldor> glory, praise + strong noun, masculine; genitive singular <cyning> king wuldorfæder - noun, neuter; <wuldor> glory, praise + noun, masculine; genitive singular <fæder> father wuldres - noun, neuter; genitive singular of <wuldor> glory, praise Wulfred - proper noun, masculine; nominative singular of <Wulfred> Wulfred wunade - weak verb, class II; 1st person singular preterite of <wunian, wunode, wunod> dwell, live, remain wunden - strong verb, class III; past participle of <windan, wond, wundon, wunden> wind, twist, turn wundra - noun, neuter; genitive plural of <wundor> miracle, wonder wundum - noun, feminine; dative plural of <wund> wound wyn - strong noun, feminine; nominative singular of <wynn> joy, delight wynnum - strong noun, feminine; dative plural of <wynn> joy, delight wyrd - strong noun, feminine; nominative singular of <wyrd> fate, destiny wyrde - strong noun, feminine; dative singular of <wyrd> fate, destiny wyruldcyninga - noun, masculine; genitive plural of <worold-cyning> earthly king yfel - noun, neuter; accusative singular of <yfel> evil, mischief, wickedness ylde - indeclinable noun, masculine plural; nominative of <ylde> men yldo - noun, feminine; genitive singular of <yldu> (old) age ylfete - noun, feminine; genitive singular of <ilfetu> swan ymb - preposition; <ymbe> at, around ymbe - preposition; <ymbe> at, around ymbsittendra - strong verb, class V; present participle <ymbsittan, ymbsæt, ymbsǣton, ymbseten> besiege, lit. sit round yða - strong noun, feminine; nominative plural of <ȳð> wave ȳþa - strong noun, feminine; genitive plural of <ȳð> wave

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