Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. ad-   'at, by, to'

Semantic Field(s): Near (adj)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: ad- vb.pfx at, to GED
ad-āgor I fear GED
ad-cin vb to gaze at GED
Old Welsh: ad prep to GED
Old English: æt prep at, to GED
Middle English: ad- pfx toward, in the direction of W7
ado n lit. to do W7
at, att(e), et prep at W7
English: ad- pfx toward, in the direction of AHD/W7
-ad sfx to, towards, near AHD/W7
ado n bustle, trouble AHD/W7
amount n aggregate, total number/quantity W7
amount vb.intrans to add up AHD/W7
at prep by, near, beside AHD/W7
paramount adj of chief concern/importance AHD
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: at, et, it prep at, to ASD/GED
Old Saxon: at prep at, to GED
t-ōgian vb.wk to show GED
Old High German: az prep at, to GED
z-agēn vb.wk to hesitate GED
z-ougen vb.wk to show GED
North Germanic  
Old Norse: at conj that LRC
at prep at, in, to, for; until LRC
Old Icelandic: at prep at, to GED
Icelandic: at prep at CDC
Danish: ad prep at CDC
Swedish: åt prep at CDC
East Germanic  
Gothic: at prep at, to, from GED
atáugjan vb.wk.I to show, appear GED
Latin: ac conj and LRC
ad- pfx towards W7
ad prep at, to, towards GED
atque conj and LRC
Portuguese: a prep at, to CDC
Spanish: prep at, to CDC
Old French: ad- pfx at, towards W7
Middle French: ad- pfx at, towards W7
French: prep at, to CDC
Italian: a prep at, to CDC
Greek: δεικνύναι vb to show GED
Sanskrit: ādhi prep on, unto CDC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
1=1st person
I=class 1
sg=singular (number)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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