Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. ad-   'to fix, put in order'

Semantic Field(s): to Restore


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: ad n law, custom, ceremony IEW
adas adj proper, befitting IEW
Welsh: addas adj fitting, suitable IEW
Old English: til adj good, useful, capable, suitable IEW
til n.neut use, service, convenience ASD
til prep til, for IEW
Middle English: til(l) prep til W2I
English: til(l) prep/conj until, toward W2I
until prep/conj to, before, up to W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: til prep til, for ASD
Dutch: tot prep/conj until TLL
Old High German: zil n aim, purpose ASD
German: Ziel n.neut aim, purpose ASD
zielen vb to take aim TLL
North Germanic  
Old Norse: til adv too, very LRC
til prep til, in, of, for LRC
Old Icelandic: tilr adj good, useful GED
Danish: indtil conj til TLL
til prep til, on TLL
Swedish: till prep til, on TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: til adj fitting, suitable GED
til n chance, opportunity IEW
Umbrian: *adio-, arsie adj pure, holy, sacred, divine IEW


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches W├Ârterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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