Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: ā̆g̑her-, ā̆g̑hen-, ā̆g̑hes-, or ō̆g̑her etc.   'day, dawn'

Semantic Field(s): Day


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: ān-daga n.wk.masc fixed day GED
dæg n.str.masc day; (name for) D-rune GED
daga n.masc day ASD
dagi(g)an vb to dawn W7/ASD
dagung vb.ptc/n.fem dawning, daybreak W7/ASD
dōgor, dōger n.str.neut day GED/ASD
frīgedæg, frigdæg n.masc Friday, lit. Freya's day W7/ASD
gebyrd-dæg n.str.masc birthday CDC
mōnandæg n.masc Monday, lit. Moon day W7
sæter(n)dæg, sæter(n)esdæg n.masc Saturday, lit. Saturn day W7/ASD
sunnandæg n.masc Sunday, lit. Sun day W7
tīwesdæg n.masc Tuesday, lit. Tiw's day W7
þunresdæg n.masc Thursday, lit. Thor's day W7
wōdnesdæg n.masc Wednesday, lit. Woden's day W7
Northumbrian: dǣg n.str.neut day GED
Middle English: aday adv at midday MEV
aldai adv all day MEV
birthdai, bitheday n birthday CDC
dawnen vb to dawn W7
daw(n)ing vb.ptc dawning W7
day n day W7
Friday prop.n Friday, lit. Freya's day W7
Monday prop.n day named for the Moon W7
Saterday prop.n day named for Saturn: Roman agriculture god W7
Sunday prop.n day named for the Sun W7
Thursday prop.n day named for Thor: Germanic thunder god W7
Tiwesday prop.n day named for Tiw: Germanic war/sky god W7
Wednesday prop.n day named for Woden: Germanic chief god W7
Whitsonday prop.n Whitsunday W7
English: birthday n day/anniversary of one's birth W7
daily adj/adv every day W7
daisy n familiar wild Eurasian plant/flower AHD/CDC
dawn n sunlight's first appearance in morning AHD/W7
dawn vb.intrans (for sunlight) to appear in morning AHD/W7
day n time of sun's light between nights AHD/W7
Friday prop.n day between Thursday and Saturday AHD/W7
midday n noon, middle part of day W7
Monday prop.n day between Sunday and Tuesday AHD/W7
Saturday prop.n day between Friday and Sunday AHD/W7
Sunday prop.n day between Saturday and Monday AHD/W7
Thursday prop.n day between Wednesday and Friday AHD/W7
today adv/n (on/for) this day AHD/W7
Tuesday prop.n day between Monday and Wednesday AHD/W7
Wednesday prop.n day between Tuesday and Thursday AHD/W7
Whitsunday prop.n Pentecost, lit. white Sunday AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: dei, di, dach n.str.masc day GED/ASD
mōna(n)dei n Monday ASD
sāterdei n.masc Saturday W7/ASD
werusdei n.masc Wednesday ASD
Frisian: dey n.masc day ASD
Middle Dutch: woensdach n.masc Wednesday ASD
Dutch: dag n.masc day ASD
dāgen vb to dawn ASD
zon-dag n Sunday ASD
Old Saxon: dag n.str.masc day GED
ēn-dago n.wk.masc lit. death-day GED
Old Low German: sunnun-dag n Sunday ASD
Middle Low German: sūke-dage n.wk.masc sickness, lit. sick-day GED
Low German: dag n.masc day ASD
Old High German: Dagi-bert prop.n Dagibert GED
frīatag n.masc Friday, lit. Freya's day W7
gaburti-tago n.wk.masc lit. birth-day GED
mahal-tago n.wk.masc fixed day GED
mānatag, mānotag n.masc Monday W7/ASD
siech-tage n.wk.masc sickness, lit. sick-day GED
sunnūntag n.masc Sunday W7
tac, tag n.str.masc day GED/ASD
tagēn vb to dawn ASD
zīostag n.masc Tuesday W7
Middle High German: tac, tag n.masc day ASD
tagen vb to dawn ASD
ziestag n.masc Tuesday ASD
German: Dienstag n.masc Tuesday LRC
Donnerstag n.masc Thursday LRC
Freitag n.masc Friday LRC
Geburtstag n.masc birthday LRC
Montag n.masc Monday ASD
Samstag n.masc Saturday LRC
Sonntag n Sunday ASD
Tag n.masc day ASD
tagen vb to dawn ASD
täglich adj/adv daily TLL
North Germanic  
Runic: *dagaz n day; (name for) D-rune LRC
Old Norse: Dagr prop.n.masc Day [personal name in Edda] LRC
ein-daga n fixed day ASD
ōþins-dagr n.masc Wednesday, lit. Odin's day W7
þōrs-dagr n.masc Thursday, lit. Thor's day W7
Old Icelandic: dagr n.str.masc day GED
døgr, døgn n.neut half-day (12 hrs.) GED
ein-dagi n.wk.masc fixed day GED
māl-dagi n.wk.masc fixed day GED
Icelandic: daga vb to dawn ASD
dagr n.masc day ASD
dægr, dœgr n.neut day ASD
mānadagr n.masc Monday ASD
oðinsdagr n.masc Wednesday ASD
sunnudagr n Sunday ASD
tȳsdagr n.masc Tuesday ASD
Danish: dag n.masc day ASD
daget (it) dawns ASD
mandag n.masc Monday ASD
Swedish: dag n.masc day ASD
daga vb to dawn ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: *afar-dags n.str.masc the following day GED
*Dagis-þius prop.n Dagisthius GED
dags n.str.masc day GED
fidur-dogs adj on the 4th day GED
Crimean Gothic: tag n day GED
Avestan: azan- n day GED
Sanskrit: áhar, áhan-, áhas- n day GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
sg=singular (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)
3=3rd person

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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