Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: agh-   'to ail, fear, be depressed'

Semantic Field(s): Fear, Fright, Sad


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: ad-āgor I fear GED
āigthiu terror GED
āl adj fearful GED
Old English: æge, e(i)ge n.masc awe, terror; sorrow ASD/GED
eg(e)sa, ægsa, ege n.masc awe, fear, terror GED/ASD/CDC
eglan vb.wk to ail, afflict W7/ASD
egle adj horrid, hateful, loathsome, troublesome AHD/ASD
eglian, elan vb.wk to ail, pain, grieve, trouble GED/ASD
ōga n.masc fright GED
ōht n.str.fem persecution GED
on-œgan vb.wk to fear GED
Middle English: aw(e), agh(e), aze n awe W7/CDC
eghe, eye, ay(e), eze n fear CDC
eilen vb to ail W7
English: ail vb to give/suffer pain/unhealth AHD/W7
awe n dread, profound/reverent fear AHD/W7
Óin prop.n dwarf in Tolkien: The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings LRC
West Germanic  
Old Saxon: egiso n.masc awe, terror GED
Middle Low German: achte n.str.fem persecution GED
egelen vb to annoy W7
Old High German: agis, egis n.neut horror ASD
agi(so) n.masc awe, fear, terror ASD/GED
āhta n.str.fem persecution GED
akī n.fem awe, terror GED
egī n.fem awe, terror GED
egisa n.fem awe, terror GED
egis-līh adj awful, terrible GED
egiso, ekiso n.masc awe, terror GED/ASD
Middle High German: ege n.fem awe, terror ASD
egese, eise n.fem horror ASD
German: ekeln vb to ail, trouble; be disgusted ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: agi n awe AHD/W7
ōgn n.fem awe, fright, terror GED
Óin prop.n Oin (Lay of Regin dwarf) TPE
ótti n.masc fear, dread LRC
Old Icelandic: agi n.masc awe, terror; discipline GED/ASD
ōast vb.wk to be afraid GED
œgishjālmr n fearful helmet (transformed Fafnir into dragon) GED
œgja vb.wk to frighten GED
Icelandic: agi n.masc terror; discipline ASD
Norwegian: egse n.neut agitation GED
Danish: ave n.masc/fem awe, terror; discipline ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: *af-agjan vb.wk.I to move, frighten GED
*-agan vb.ptpr.VI to fear GED
agei n.fem awe, terror ASD
agis n.str.neut awe, fear, terror GED
*agls adj disgraceful GED
aglyan vb to molest ASD
*ogan vb.ptpr to fear GED
un-agein adv fearlessly GED
usagjan vb.wk.I to frighten, terrify GED
Greek: ἄχνυμαι vb to mourn, be troubled GED
ἄχομαι vb to mourn, be sad GED
ἄχος n pain, sorrow GED
achos n.neut pain W7
ἄχυμαι vb to mourn, be sad GED
ὄις n snake GED
Sanskrit: áhiṣ n snake GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
VI=class 6
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
ptpr=preterite-present (verb)
sg=singular (number)
str=strong (inflection)
ua=used as
wk=weak (inflection)
1=1st person

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TPE=Lee M. Hollander: The Poetic Edda (1962)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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