Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: ag̑ro-s   'field, acre'

Semantic Field(s): Plain, Field, Field for Cultivation


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: æcer, æcyr n.str.masc acre ASD/GED
Middle English: acre, aker, akir n acre CDC
agriculture n agriculture AHD
onager n wild ass W7
pilgrim n pilgrim W7
podagra n podagra W7
staphisagre n stavesacre W7
English: acre n field, large area of land AHD/W7
agrarian adj re: fields/farmers AHD/W7
agria n (type of) blow-fly AHD
agriculture n craft/science of farming/cultivation AHD/W7
agro- pfx field(s), grass(es) AHD
agrostology n study of grasses AHD
onager n heavy catapult AHD/W7
pellagra n a skin disease AHD/W7
Peregrine prop.n hobbit a.k.a. Pippin in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
peregrine adj tending to wander AHD/W7
pilgrim n one who journeys to holy place AHD/W7
podagra n foot disease AHD/W7
stavesacre n (seeds of) Eurasian larkspur AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: ekker n.str.masc acre GED
Dutch: akker n acre CDC
Old Saxon: akkar n.str.masc acre GED
Old High German: achar, ackar, accar n.str.masc acre CDC/GED
Middle High German: acker n acre CDC
German: Acker n.masc acre LRC
agrarisch adj agrarian LRC
Agrikultur n.fem agriculture LRC
Pilger n.masc pilgrim LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: akr n acre ASD
Old Icelandic: akrs n.str.masc acre GED
Danish: ager n acre CDC
Swedish: åker n acre CDC
East Germanic  
Gothic: akrs n.masc acre GED
Latin: ager, agrī n.masc acre, district, property LRC
-agra sfx disease, sickness W7
agrarius adj agrarian W7
agrestis adj wild GED
agricultura n.fem agriculture W7
onager n.masc wild donkey; war machine W7
pereger adj being abroad W7
peregrinus adj/n.masc foreign(er) W7
podagra n.fem podagra W7
Late Latin: pelegrinus n.masc pilgrim W7
Medieval Latin: peregrinus n.masc pilgrim W7
Old French: peligrin n.masc pilgrim W7
French: agriculture n.fem agriculture W7
Italian: pellagra n.fem pellagra W7
Homeric Greek: ἄγρη n.fem hunt, catch(ing) GED/IEW
ἀγρός n.masc acre, farm GED
Greek: ἄγρα n.fem hunt, catch(ing) LS
ἀγραυλούνω vb to dwell in fields LRC
ἄγριος adj wild, savage, living in fields GED
agrōstis n (kind of) wild grass AHD
onagros n.masc wild donkey; war machine W7
podagra n.fem podagra W7
staphisagre n wild raisin W7
Armenian: art n acre GED
Avestan: *azrā n hunt GED
azrō-daiðim vb to hunt, pursue, go out for prey GED
Sanskrit: ájras n plain, acre, flatland GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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