Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: ā̆ier-, ā̆ien-   'day(light), morning'

Semantic Field(s): Day, Light, Morning


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: ǣr prep/adv ere, formerly LRC
ǣrest adv.sup erst, soonest, earliest W7
ǣrlīce, ārlīce adv early ASD/W7
ār adv ere, soon, early W7
Middle English: ær, ar, or prep/adv ere, soon, early CDC
er(e) prep/adv/conj ere W7
erest adj/adv.sup erst W7
erly adj/adv early W7
English: early adv early AHD/W7
ere prep/adv/conj before AHD/W7
erst adv.sup.arch first, soonest, earliest AHD/W7
or arch.prep/adv before; early AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: ēr adv ere CDC
Dutch: eer adv ere CDC
Old Saxon: ēr adv ere CDC
Old High German: ēr, ǣr adv ere ASD
er adv ere, early CDC
German: ehe(r) adv ere, early CDC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: ár adv ere, soon, early; long ago LRC
East Germanic  
Gothic: áir adv ere, soon, early LRC
airis adv.comp ere, sooner, earlier CDC
Greek: ēri adv ere, early W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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