Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. aig-, nasalized ing-   'ill, sick; depressed, dispirited'

Semantic Field(s): Sad, Pain, Suffering


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: ācol, acol, ac(u)l adj afraid, excited, terrified ASD/IEW
inca n.masc pain, grief; doubt, question, suspicion ASD/IEW
Middle English: inclen vb to hint, inkle W2I
yngkiling n inkling W7
English: inkle vb.dial to foresee, have an inkling IEW/W2I
inkling n hint, idea, notion, intimation IEW/W2I
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: inc adj angry, incensed IEW
North Germanic  
Old Norse: eikenn adj wild, angry, furious IEW
ekki n.masc pain, grief, sorrow IEW
Norwegian: eikja, eikla vb to torment constantly IEW
eikjen adj argumentive IEW
Latin: aeger, aegra, aegrum adj ill, sick; frail, feeble ELD/IEW
Tocharian B: aik(a)re adj ill, sick IEW
Tocharian A: ekro adj ill, sick IEW


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
ELD=Charlton T. Lewis: An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1999)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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