Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. aig-   'oak'

Semantic Field(s): Oak, Tree, Oak


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: āc, ǣc n.fem oak ASD/IEW
Middle English: ak(e), ok(e), ook n oak CDC
English: oak n type of tree/wood IEW
Oakenshield prop.n epithet for Thorin in Tolkien: The Hobbit LRC
Scots English: aik n oak CDC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: ēk n oak CDC
Frisian: ik n oak ASD
Middle Dutch: eeke n oak CDC
Dutch: eek, eik n oak ASD/CDC
Middle Low German: ēke n oak CDC
Low German: eke n oak CDC
Old High German: ei(c)h n oak CDC
Middle High German: eich(e) n oak CDC
German: Eiche n.fem oak (tree) LRC
Eichel n.fem acorn LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: eik n.fem oak, tree; ship LRC
Eikinskjaldi prop.n lit. Oaken-shield (Voluspa dwarf) TPE
Norwegian: eik n oak CDC
Danish: eg n oak CDC
Swedish: ek n oak CDC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TPE=Lee M. Hollander: The Poetic Edda (1962)

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