Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. ais-   'to respect, worship, be in awe'

Semantic Field(s): to Worship


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: ār n.str.fem glory, honor; kindness GED
ārian vb to honor, endow, protect IEW
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: ēre n.str.fem glory, honor GED
Dutch: eer n glory, honor ASD
Old Saxon: ēra n.str.fem glory, honor GED
Old High German: ēra n.str.fem glory, honor GED
ērēn, ērōn vb to honor, endow IEW
Middle High German: ēre n.fem glory, honor ASD
German: Ehre n.fem glory, honor ASD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: Eir prop.n (name of) medicine goddess IEW
eira vb to spare, protect IEW
æra n glory, honor ASD
Old Icelandic: eir n.str.fem grace, generosity GED
eirð n.str.fem mercy GED
Danish: äre n glory, honor ASD
Swedish: ära n glory, honor ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: *aistan vb.wk.III to fear, respect GED
Greek: αἴδομαι vb to fear, respect GED/IEW
αἰδώς n respect GED/IEW
Sanskrit: īṭṭe vb to venerate GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
III=class 3
fem=feminine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)

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