Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: akā-, more accurately əkā, ēk-   'aqua, water, river'

Semantic Field(s): Water, Brook, Stream, River


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: ab n river LRC
Old English: ǣ-spring, ǣ-sprynge n.neut fountain, lit. water-spring ASD/ODE
ē(a)gor-strēam n.masc current, lit. sea-stream LRC
*eah, eā, ǣ n.fem aqua, river ASD/CDC
*ēget n ait CDC
ēg(or) n.fem sea, aqua ASD
ēgor-here n.masc deluge, lit. water-host ASD
īg(e) n.fem ait W7
īg(e)oþ, iggaþ, iggoþ n.masc ait ASD
īgland n.neut island W7
Middle English: ait, æit, eyt n ait W7
aqua n aqua AHD
aquatique adj aquatic AHD
ewer n ewer W7
island n island W7
sewer n sewer W7
English: ai(gh)t n islet, small island AHD/W7
aqua-, aque-, aqui- pfx water LRC
aqua n water; aqueous solution W7
aquamarine n green/blue gem AHD/W7
aquanaut n one who lives/works underwater AHD
aquarelle n water-color painting AHD/W7
aquarium n tank for aquatic creatures AHD/W7
aquatic adj re: (growing/living in/on) water W7
aquatint n etching process producing print like ink/wash drawing AHD
aquavit n Scandinavian liquor AHD/W7
aqueduct n water conduit AHD/W7
aqueous adj re: water W7
aquifer n layer of earth/stone/gravel yielding water AHD
ewer n water pitcher AHD/W7
gouache n type of paint AHD/W7
island n land (smaller than continent) surrounded by water AHD/W7
Rushey prop.n Marish locale in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
sewer n waste-water conduit AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: , n aqua, river CDC
Dutch: eiland n island TLL
Old Saxon: aha n aqua, river CDC
Old High German: aha n river LRC
Middle High German: ahe n river CDC
German: Aa prop.n (name of) a river CDC
Aquarell n.neut aquarelle LRC
Aquarium n.neut aquarium LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: ey n.fem island LRC
eybarmr n.masc island surface LRC
eyjarskeggi n.masc island inhabitant LRC
eyland n.neut island W7
Icelandic: n aqua, river CDC
ey n ait ASD
eyland n island ASD
ægir n.masc the sea ASD
Norwegian: akvavit n aquavit W7
Danish: aa n brook CDC
halvø n peninsula TLL
ø n island TLL
Swedish: n brook CDC
aquavit n aquavit W7
halvö n peninsula TLL
n island TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: aƕa n river LRC
Latin: a(c)quarius adj re: aqua W7
aqua n.fem aqua W7
aquaeductus n.masc aqueduct AHD
aquamarina n seawater CDC
aquarium n.neut aquarium W7
aquaticus adj re: aqua CDC
aquatio n.fem act of fetching water W7
aquatus vb.ptc watered W7
aquor, aquari vb to fetch water W7
Oceanus, Oceani n.masc ocean LRC
Vulgar Latin: aquarium n.neut ewer W7
exaquo, exaquāre vb to drain W7
Medieval Latin: aqueus adj aqueous AHD
Portuguese: agua n aqua CDC
Spanish: agua n aqua LRC
Old French: aquatique adj aquatic AHD
aqueduct n aqueduct CDC
evier n.masc ewer, sink, sewer W7
Anglo-French: ewer n.masc ewer W7
Middle French: essewer vb to drain W7
esseweur n.masc sewer W7
seweur n.masc sewer W7
French: aquarelle n.fem aquarelle W7
aquatinte n aquatint AHD
aqueduc n.masc aqueduct CDC
eau n.fem aqua CDC
gouache n.fem gouache W7
Italian: acqua n.fem aqua W7
acquarella n.fem aquarelle W7
acquarello n.masc aquarelle CID/W7
acquatinta n aquatint AHD
acquerèllo n.masc aquarelle CID/W7
Old Prussian: ape n river LRC
Lithuanian: ùpẹ n river LRC
Hittite: ak(k)-, ek(k)- n drink LRC
Sanskrit: ā́pas n waters LRC
Tocharian: yok n drink LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
ODE=C.T. Onions: The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (1966)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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