Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. al-, ol-   'beyond; other, alien'

Semantic Field(s): Stranger, Like, Similar


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: aile adj other GED
ailither n pilgrim GED
indoll prep beyond W7
Old English: eal(l) adj/adv all; entirely LRC
eall-swā adv also, lit. all so W7
(e)al-swā adv/conj also, lit. all so CDC
elcor, elcur, ælcor adv otherwise ASD/GED
elelende vb.past.ptc exiled GED
elles adv otherwise GED
ellicor adv otherwise GED
ellor adv elsewhere GED
Middle English: adultery n adultery W7
al, all(e) adj/adv all MEV/W7
albeit adv albeit W7
aldai adv all day MEV
algate adv in all ways, at any rate MEV
alien adj/n alien W7
alkyn adj of all kinds MEV
all adv withal W7
alone adj/adv lone W7
alsaume adv all together MEV
also, als(wa) adv/conj also, lit. all so MEV/W7
alteren vb to alter W7
although adv although W7
as conj whereas W7
as(e), als(e) adv/conj as CDC
avoutrie n adultery W7
uttraunce n utterance; bitter end W7
English: adulterate vb to make impure AHD/W7
adulterine adj illegal, spurious, re: adulteration AHD/W7
adultery n sex between unmarried spouses AHD/W7
albeit conj even though AHD/W7
alfresco adj/adv outdoor(s), in open air AHD/W9
alias adv assumed name/identity AHD/W7
alibi n excuse of having been elsewhere AHD/W7
alien adj strange, foreign AHD/W7
alien n stranger, foreigner LRC
aliquot adj re: exact factor/divisor of quantity AHD
all adj every, complete AHD/W7
allele n one of a genetic pair LRC
allelomorph n allele, lit. other form AHD/W7
allelopathy n plant toxin release slowing other plant growth AHD
alligator n crocodilian with short broad untapered snout AHD/W7
allo- pfx other AHD/W7
also adv too, likewise, as well, in addition AHD/W7
alter vb to change AHD/W7
altercate vb.intrans to dispute, wrangle AHD/W7
alternate adj re: occurring/succeeding by turns AHD/W7
although conj even though, while AHD/W7
altruism n concern for others' interests AHD/W7
as adv/conj so, like; when, while AHD/W7
else adv otherwise GED
hoopla n hubbub, commotion AHD/W7
lagniappe n bonus gift from merchant AHD/W7
lariat n rope with noose for catching cattle AHD/W7
morphallaxis n organic regrowth from remnant AHD/W7
outré adj bizarre, violating convention/propriety AHD/W7
parallax n skewing of form/position due to perspective AHD/W7
parallel adj lying on same plane without intersection AHD/W7
penult n next to last item (in series) TLL
subaltern adj subordinate AHD/W7
trophallaxis n mutual exchange of food among social insects AHD
ulterior adj further AHD/W7
ultimate adj last, final, furthest, greatest AHD/W7
ultra- pfx beyond, intense AHD/W7
utterance n what is said/uttered AHD/W7
voila interj there it is! AHD
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: al, ol adj all ASD
as(e), a(l)sa adv/conj as CDC
ekker, elker, elkes adv otherwise ASD
elles, ellis adv otherwise ASD
Frisian: al, ol adj all ASD
Dutch: al(le), alles adj all ASD
Old Saxon: al adj all ASD
alsō adv/conj as, also CDC
elcor adv otherwise GED
elilende vb.past.ptc exiled GED
ellicor adv elsewhere GED
Old High German: alilante vb.past.ptc exiled GED
al(l) adj/adv all ASD
alles adv otherwise GED
alsō adv/conj as, also CDC
elih(h)or, elic(h)or adv further ASD/GED
elilenti vb.past.ptc exiled GED
ellichōr adv further GED
ell(i)es adv otherwise ASD/GED
Middle High German: al adj all ASD
alles adv otherwise ASD
alsō, alse adv/conj as, also CDC
German: All n.neut universe LRC
all(e), aller, alles adj all ASD
Allel n.neut allele AHD
Allelomorph n allelomorph AHD
als conj as, than GED
also adv so, thus LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: elligar adv otherwise LRC
Old Icelandic: ella(r) adv otherwise GED
elligar adv otherwise GED
ellor adv otherwise GED
Icelandic: allr, allt, ale, öll adj all ASD
ellegar, elligar, ella(r) adv otherwise ASD
Danish: al adj all ASD
als adv/conj as, also CDC
eller conj or, nor TLL
ellers adv otherwise ASD
Swedish: al adj all ASD
eljest adv else ASD
eller conj or, nor TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: alja conj but GED
aljaleiko adv otherwise GED
*aljaleikoþs adj/vb.ptc allegorical, with a different meaning GED
aljar adv elsewhere GED
aljaþ adv elsewhere, to another place GED
aljaþro adv by another way GED
*aljis adj other GED
allis adv at all ASD
alls adj all LRC
Oscan: alttram adj other GED
Old Latin: ollus dem.pron he, that LRC
Latin: adulter adj unchaste, adulterous W7
adulterium n.neut adultery W7
adulterō, adulterāre vb to commit adultery W7
alias adv of another time W7
alibi adv elsewhere GED
alienus, aliena, alienum adj alien, unfitting LRC
aliquis, aliquis, aliquid pron.indef anyone LRC
aliter adv otherwise GED
alius adj/pron other GED
alter, altera, alterum adj/pron other GED
altercor, altercārī vb.dep to dispute, wrangle W7
alterno, alternāre vb to alternate W7
alternus adj other W7
ille, illa, illud dem.pron he, she, that LRC
olim adv some day LRC
parallelus adj parallel W7
ullus adj/pron any(one) W7
uls adv beyond W7
ulter adj situated beyond W7
ulterior, ulterioris adj farther, remote LRC
ultimus adj.sup last W7
ultrā adv/prep/pfx beyond W7
Late Latin: subalternus adj subaltern W7
ultimo, ultimāre vb to be last, come to an end W7
Medieval Latin: alterō, alterāre vb to alter, change W7
ultimatus adj last, final W7
New Latin: morphallaxis n.fem change of form W7
Spanish: allá adv over there, far away TLL
el, la art.def the W7
Old French: adultere n adultery AHD
alien n.masc alien W7
alterer vb to alter AHD
autre indef.adj/pron other W7
autrui adj.obl other W7
outre prep beyond W7
outré adj passed, defeated W7
outrer vb to pass (someone) W7
Middle French: altérer vb to change, damage W7
avoutrie n.fem adultery W7
outrance n.fem what is outrageous W7
parallaxe n.fem parallax W7
French: altruisme n.masc altruism W7
aussi conj as TLL
autre indef.adj/pron other LRC
autrui others, other people W7
houp-là interj hoopla W7
le, la art.def the LRC
outré adj outraged, offended W7
outrer vb to irritate, carry to excess W7
voilà cont voila, there is/are, lit. see there AHD
Italian: altrui indef.pron someone else AHD
Greek: ἀλλά conj but GED
allaxis n.fem exchange W7
allassein vb to change, exchange W7
ἀλλήλων pron one another LRC
ἄλλοθι adv elsewhere GED
ἄλλος adj other GED
ἀλλότριος n stranger GED
ἄλλως adv otherwise, especially LRC
parallaxis n.fem act of changing W7
parallassein vb to change W7
parallēlos adj parallel W7
Classical Armenian: ayl conj but LRC
Armenian: ail conj but (rather) GED
ayl adj other GED
Avestan: anyadā adv elsewhere GED
Sanskrit: anyátra adv elsewhere GED
anyás adj other GED
aríḥ n stranger GED
aryás n hospitable lord GED
Tocharian B: alyek adj other GED
Tocharian A: alyak adj other GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
obl=oblique (case)
past=past (tense)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)
W9=Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary (1983)

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