Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. al-   'to grow, nourish, enhance'

Semantic Field(s): to Grow


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: al n bank GED
alim vb to nourish, bring up GED
alt n height, bank GED
altae adj adult GED
altram n nourishment GED
altru n foster-father GED
Welsh: athraw n teacher GED
Old English: alan vb.str to nourish GED
aldor n.masc chief, prince, lit. elder ASD
(e)ald adj old GED
eal(d)dōm n.str.masc/neut old age GED
ealdor n.str.masc elder, parent, prince; life LRC
ealdor-mon(n) n.masc nobleman, lit. elder man ASD
ield(o) n.str.fem age GED
ieldra adj.comp elder, older GED
or-eald adj very-old, lit. from (of) old ASD
wer-old n.str.fem era, world GED
ylde n.str.fem age GED
Middle English: abolisshen vb to abolish W7
adolescent adj adolescent AHD
alde, old(e) adj old MEV
alderman n English administrator W7
aliment n aliment W7
altitude n altitude W7
elder n elder W7
enhauncen vb to enhance W7
exalten vb to exalt W7
haute adj haughty W7
hawser n hawser, large rope for ships W7
English: abolish vb.trans to annul, cancel, do away with AHD/W7
adolescent n young teenager (typically 11-15 years) AHD/W7
adult adj grown person AHD/W7
alderman n English administrator AHD/W7
Aldor prop.n 3rd Rohan king in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
alible adj nourishing, having nutrients AHD
aliment n food, nutriment AHD/W7
alimony n monetary allowance AHD/W7
alt adj/n (re:) 1st octave above treble staff AHD
alth(a)ea n hollycock, marsh mallow AHD/OED
altimeter n height measurement tool AHD/W7
altiplano n high plain or plateau AHD/W7
altitude n height above ground AHD/W7
alto n second highest voice/musical range AHD/W7
altocumulus n a cirrus-like dark cloud AHD/W7
altostratus n a fleecy, shaded, globular cloud AHD/W7
altricial adj bearing helpless young AHD/W7
alumnus n graduate of a school or college AHD/W7
coalesce vb.intrans to merge, fuse AHD/W7
elder adj/n older (person) AHD/W7
eldest adj/n oldest (person) AHD/W7
enhance vb.trans to augment, intensify AHD/W7
exalt vb to raise on high with honor AHD/W7
haughty adj disdainfully proud AHD/W7
hautboy, hautbois n oboe AHD
hawser n rope for ship towing AHD/W7
old adj aged, ancient AHD/W7
Oldbuck prop.n hobbit surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Orald prop.n a.k.a. Tom Bombadil in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
proletarian n belonging to the lower class AHD/W7
proliferate vb to grow/multiply rapidly AHD
proliferous adj reproducing freely via buds/branches AHD
prolific adj fertile, abundant AHD/W7
Scots English: auld adj old W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: ald adj old GED
warld, wrald n.fem world ASD
Frisian: aod, aud, oad adj old ASD
Dutch: onder-dom n lifetime ASD
oud adj old ASD
ouder n elder, parent TLL
Old Saxon: ald adj old GED
aldar n.str.neut age GED
eldī n.str.fem age GED
wer-old n.str.fem world, men; era, lifetime GED
Old High German: alt adj old GED
altar n.str.neut age GED
alt-duam n.str.masc/neut old age GED
altī n.str.fem age GED
altiro adj.comp older GED
alt-tuom n.str.masc/neut old age GED
eltī n.str.fem age GED
ur-alt adj very old ASD
wer-alt n.str.fem world; era GED
Middle High German: alt adj old ASD
alter n.neut age ASD
German: alt adj old ASD
Alter n.neut age LRC
Elter n.masc elder, parent LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: ala vb.str to bear, beget, give birth to; feed LRC
elska, elskað vb to love LRC
ǫld n.fem age; mankind; world LRC
Old Icelandic: ala vb.str to beget GED
aldinn adj aged GED
aldr n.masc age, time of life GED
elli n.fem age GED
ellri adj.comp older GED
ver-ǫld n.str.fem world; era GED
ældri adj.comp older GED
ællri adj.comp older GED
ǫld n.fem age GED
Icelandic: aldr n.masc age, life, period ASD
ver-öld n.fem world ASD
Norwegian: elja vb to fatten GED
Danish: alder n.masc/fem age ASD
forælder n parent TLL
Swedish: förälder n parent TLL
ålder n.masc age ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: *alan vb.str.VI to grow GED
*aldomo n.masc/neut old age GED
*alds n.fem age, generation GED
*aljan vb.wk.I.caus to fatten GED
alþeis adj old GED
alþiza adj.comp older GED
*fram-aldrs adj aged GED
*us-alþans silly GED
Crimean Gothic: alt adj old GED
Latin: aboleo, abolēre vb to destroy, abolish W7
abolēsco, abolēscere vb to decay, disappear gradually W7
adolescens, adolescentis adj adolescent W7
adolēscō, adolēscere vb to grow up GED
adultus adj adult, mature, grown up GED
alēsco, alēscere vb to grow, flourish GED
alibilis adj alible AHD
alimentum n.neut aliment W7
alimonia n.fem sustenance, nourishment W7
alō, alere, altus vb to nourish GED
althea n althaea AHD
altitudo n.fem height, depth W7
altor n.masc one who nourishes W7
altrix, altricis n.fem one who nourishes W7
altus, alta, altum adj high, deep LRC
alumnus, alumna n.masc/fem nursling, foster-child W7
coalesco, coalescere vb to unite W7
exalto, exaltare vb to exalt W7
prōlēs n.fem offspring, progeny, descendants GED
proletarius adj re: common people W7
Vulgar Latin: altio, altiare vb to pull high W7
inaltio, inaltiare vb to enhance, make higher/bigger W7
New Latin: altocumulus n.masc altocumulus: type of cloud W7
altostratus n.masc altostratus: type of cloud W7
American Spanish: altiplano n.masc plateau W7
Old French: abolir vb to destroy, abolish AHD
adolescent adj adolescent AHD
enhaucier vb to enhance W7
hautbois n hautbois AHD
Anglo-French: enhauncer vb to enhance W7
hauceour vb to hoist W7
Middle French: abolir, abolisse vb to destroy, abolish W7
exalter vb to exalt W7
haucier vb to hoist W7
haut adj high W7
French: adolescent n.masc youth, adolescent W7
hautbois n hautboy AHD
prolifique adj prolific W7
Italian: alto adj high, deep W7
Hesychius' Greek Lexicon: ἀλτρός n payment GED
Greek: ἀλθαίνω vb to heal GED
ἄν-αλτος adj insatiable GED
νεᾱλής adj fresh, strong GED
Sanskrit: an-alas n fire, god of fire GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
VI=class 6
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
past=past (tense)
str=strong (inflection)
ua=used as
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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