Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 4. an-, anu, anō, nō   'on, along, over there'

Semantic Field(s): Side


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Irish: an(a), ann prep on, in, over, along, toward CDC
Old English: an, on adv/prep/pfx (up)on, in, at, onto LRC
Middle English: an, on adv/prep/pfx on W7
ana adv ana W7
English: ana- pfx up, along, back AHD/W7
ana adv equal quantity of each AHD/W7
anschluss n annexation, political union AHD
naprapathy n treatment of disease by joint/muscle/ligament manipulation AHD
on prep upon, along; regarding AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: an(a) prep on, at, over GED
Middle Dutch: aen prep on, upon CDC
Dutch: aan prep on, upon CDC
Old Saxon: an(a) prep on, at, over GED
Middle Low German: an prep on, upon CDC
Old High German: an(a) adv/prep on, at, over GED
Middle High German: an(e) prep on, upon CDC
German: an prep on, upon CDC
anschliessen vb to lock, annex, enclose, connect AHD
Anschluss n anschluss, connection AHD
North Germanic  
Old Norse: prep on, upon; at, in; to, towards LRC
Old Icelandic: ā- pfx over GED
Icelandic: prep on, upon CDC
Old Danish: aa prep on, upon CDC
Swedish: prep on, upon CDC
East Germanic  
Gothic: ana prep on, in, at, upon, over LRC
anaks adv suddenly, at once LRC
Latin: an- pfx on, to GED
ana- pfx up, back, again W7
anhēlo, anhēlare vb to puff, pant, wheeze, breathe heavily CLD/GED
Medieval Latin: ana adv ana AHD
Old Prussian: na, no prep away from GED
Lithuanian: nuõ prep (away) from LRC
Latvian: no prep from LRC
nùo prep away from GED
Old Church Slavonic: na prep on, in; at, against; for LRC
Russian: na prep on, in, over, along, toward CDC
Greek: ἀνά adv/prep/pfx on, up, back, along, again LRC
ἄνωθεν adv anew, from above LRC
Classical Armenian: hamberem vb to suffer, endure LRC
Armenian: am- pfx up GED
Old Persian: anā prep on, over GED
Avestan: ana prep on, over GED
Sanskrit: anu prep on, in, over, along, toward CDC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CLD=Cassell's Latin Dictionary (1959, rev. 1968)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

Nearby etymon:    previous   |   next

  • Linguistics Research Center

    University of Texas at Austin
    PCL 5.556
    Mailcode S5490
    Austin, Texas 78712

  • For comments and inquiries, or to report issues, please contact the Web Master at