Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. an(ə)-   'to breathe, respire, animate'

Semantic Field(s): to Breathe; Breath


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: anāl n breath GED
anim n.fem spirit GED
os-nad n sigh GED/IEW
Middle Breton: anavon spirits, the dead GED
Old English: aneþa n anger, hatred, enmity GED
or-(o)þ n.neut breath GED
orðian vb.wk.denom to pant, breathe GED
ōþian vb to breathe hard GED
Middle English: animadverten vb to animadvert AHD
animal n animal AHD
animate adj animate W7
animosite n animosity W7
English: anemone n windflower: perennial herb with large flowers AHD
anima n soul, inner self AHD
animadvert vb to notice, observe AHD/W7
animal n beast, non-plant AHD/W7
animate adj alive, possessing life AHD/W7
animate vb to give life/breath/spirit to W7
animato adv lively (musical direction) AHD/W7
animism n belief that nature harbors souls AHD/W7
animosity n enmity AHD/W7
animus n mind, disposition AHD/W7
equanimity n composure under stress AHD/W7
longanimity n capacity for long-suffering AHD/W7
magnanimous adj generous, great-spirited AHD/W7
pusillanimous adj vaccillating, lit. weak-minded AHD/W7
unanimous adj of one mind AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: amma n breath GED
Old Saxon: ando n.wk.masc insult, anger, bitterness GED
Old High German: anto n.wk.masc insult, anger, bitterness GED
antōn vb.wk to punish, reproach GED
German: animiert adj animate(d) LRC
Animismus n animism W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: ǫnd n.fem breath LRC
Old Icelandic: anda vb.wk to breathe GED
andi n.masc breath, wind, spirit GED
onð n.fem breath GED
Danish: aande n breath TLL
Swedish: ande n breath TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: *uz-anan vb.str.VI to breathe one's last GED
Latin: aequanimitas n.fem calmness, impartiality W7
anemōne@E% n anemone AHD
anima n.fem air, wind; breath, soul, spirit GED
animadverto, animadvertere vb to animadvert, attend to; blame, censure W7
animal n.neut animal GED
animalis adj animate, living W7
animo, animāre, animatus vb to give life to W7
animosus adj spirited W7
animus, animi n.masc soul, spirit, animus GED
magnanimus adj magnanimous W7
unanimus adj unanimous W7
Late Latin: animositas, animositatis n.fem animosity W7
longanimis adj patient W7
longanimitas n.fem longanimity W7
pusillanimis adj cowardly, pusillanimous W7
Old French: animosite n animosity AHD
Middle French: animosité n.fem animosity W7
Italian: animare vb to animate AHD
animato vb.ptc animated W7
Albanian: ájër n.masc air GED
Greek: ἄνεμος n.masc wind GED
anemōnē n.fem anemone W7
*ἆνος n face GED
*ἦνος n face GED
προσ-ηνής adj well-disposed GED
Old Persian: aura n.masc lord GED
Avestan: ahurō n.masc lord GED
(par-)åntyå vb.ptc breathing in and out GED
Sanskrit: aṇa adj alive GED
ániti vb to breathe GED
ánilas n wind, breath GED
ásuḥ n vital strength GED
ásuras n lord, deity characterized by heightened life-force GED
ānanam n mouth GED
*ānas n face GED
Tocharian: āñm- n life, spirit GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
VI=class 6
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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