Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: andho-   'blind, dark, somber'

Semantic Field(s): Darkness


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English: adumbrate vb.trans to suggest, intimate AHD/W7
somber adj dark, gloomy AHD/W7
umbel n type of inflorescence AHD/W7
umbra n shade, shadow AHD/W7
umbrella n rainguard; parasol AHD/W7
umbrette n Hamerkop: drab brown African wading bird AHD
American English: sombrero n broad-brimmed straw/felt hat AHD
Latin: adumbro, adumbrāre, adumbratus vb to sketch, outline W7
umbella n.fem.dim little shadow W7
umbra n.fem umbra; grayling W7
Late Latin: subumbro, subumbrare vb to shade/cover/shadow beneath AHD
New Latin: umbella n.fem umbel W7
Spanish: sombrero n.masc hat, sombrero LRC
Old French: *sombrer vb to cast a shadow AHD
French: sombre adj shady W7
Italian: ombrèlla n.fem umbrella W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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