Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: apo-, pō̆, ap-u, pu   'off, out of, away from'

Semantic Field(s): to Depart, Go Away


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: a- pfx of, off W7
æf prep from, from...away GED
aeftan adv behind, from behind W7
æfter, efter adv/pfx/prep then, after, behind GED
æfter-geōla n.masc January, lit. after-yule (month) LRC
af, of prep of, off, from ASD
afera, afara n.wk.masc son, heir, descendant ASD
be-æftan prep/adv after, behind; hereafter AHD/ASD
eafora, eaf(e)ra, eofera n.wk.masc son, heir, descendant ASD/GED
ebba n ebb W7
eft adv thereupon, afterwards LRC
efterlið n July, lit. after-Lithe (month) ASD
prafost n.masc provost, officer ASD/W7
Middle English: ab- pfx off, from W7
afte adv aft, back W7
apo- pfx away from W7
apposicioun n apposition AHD
awke adj turned the wrong way W7
awkeward adv in the wrong direction W7
baft adv/prep aft, behind, toward rear AHD/W7
composicioun n composition W7
compounen vb to compound W7
disposen vb to dispose W7
ebbe n ebb W7
eft adv after W7
eftsones adv eftsoons W7
exposen vb to expose W7
expounden vb to expound W7
of adv/pfx/prep of, off W7
offal n offal, by-product W7
positive adj positive W7
preposicioun n preposition W7
proposen vb to propose W7
provost n provost W7
supposen vb to suppose W7
transposen vb to transpose W7
English: ab- pfx off, from AHD/W7
abaft adv/prep aft, behind, toward rear/stern AHD/W7
ablaut n systematic vowel variation in same/related root/affix AHD/W7
abrupt adj broken off AHD/W7
aft adv back, astern, toward rear AHD/W7
aft n stern of ship LRC
after adv following AHD/W7
Afterlithe prop.n Shire calendar's July in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
aftermath n rowen, unplowed stubble field, 2nd-growth crop AHD/W7
Afteryule prop.n Shire calendar's January in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
apo- pfx away from AHD/W7
apophyge n scape, outward curve of column where shaft joins base/capital AHD
apotropaic adj averting evil AHD
apposite adj apt, pertinent, appropriate AHD/W7
apposition n placing opposite/adjacent/side-by-side AHD
apropos adj relevant, opportune, appropriate AHD
awkward adj unnatural, uncomfortable AHD/W7
component n piece, member AHD/W7
composite adj made of parts AHD/W7
composition n tract, work, opus AHD/W7
compost n organic fertilizer AHD/W7
compote n fruit dessert bowel AHD/W7
compound adj made of parts AHD/W7
compound vb to augment, put together AHD/W7
contrapposto n twisting of body in artwork AHD
depone vb to testify AHD/W7
deposit vb to place, store AHD/W7
dispose vb to get rid of AHD/W7
ebb n tide's seaward flow AHD/W7
eftsoons adv soon after AHD/W7
exponent n expounder, interpreter AHD/W7
expose vb to bring to light AHD/W7
exposé n public exposure of vice AHD/W7
expound vb to elaborate, set forth AHD/W7
impose vb to establish by authority AHD/W7
impost n tax AHD/W7
interpose vb to intervene, put/come between AHD/W7
juxtaposition n act/instance of placing objects side-by-side AHD/W7
of prep from, regarding, belonging to AHD/W7
off adv from, away AHD/W7
offal n waste, animal viscera AHD/W7
oppose vb.trans to defy, stand against AHD/W7
pastiche n artistic/literary hodgepodge AHD/W7
position n place, standing AHD/W7
positive adj real, affirmative AHD/W7
post- pfx after AHD/W7
post n watch, station AHD/W7
posterior adj rear AHD/W7
postmeridian adj occurring after noon AHD/W7
postmortem adj occurring after death AHD
postpartum adj re: period shortly after childbirth AHD
postprandial adj after meal/dinner AHD
postscript n note(s) appended to completed letter/article/book AHD/W7
posture n bearing AHD/W7
preposition n head of prepositional phrase AHD/W7
preposterous adj absurd, unheard-of AHD/W7
propose vb to suggest AHD/W7
provost n academic administrative official AHD/W7
punt vb to play against the bank AHD/W7
reposit vb.trans to store, replace AHD/W7
suppose vb to imagine; to ween AHD/W7
transpose vb.trans to shift, exchange AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: ebba n.neut ebb ASD
eft(a) adv then, behind, afterwards ASD
efter prep after, behind GED
of prep from, from...away GED
Middle Dutch: ebbe n ebb W7
Dutch: achter prep after TLL
eb n.fem ebb ASD
van prep from TLL
Old Saxon: aƀaro n.wk.masc descendant GED
af prep from, from...away GED
aftar prep after, behind GED
eft adv again ASD
Old High German: ab prep from, from...away GED
aba adv/pfx/prep off, from, from...away GED
abuh adv turned the wrong way W7
abur adv again, a second time, on the other hand GED
aftar adv/prep after, behind GED
avar adv again, a second time, on the other hand GED
ebba n.fem ebb ASD
prōbist n provost, officer ASD
Middle High German: ebbe n.fem ebb ASD
German: ab adv off, from, away LRC
aber conj but TLL
Ablaut n.masc ablaut W7
Ebbe n.fem ebb ASD
von prep from TLL
North Germanic  
Old Norse: af prep out of, from; with; concerning; because of LRC
aptr adv back; aft LRC
eptir prep after, behind; for, to obtain; along; according to; in succession to LRC
ǫfugr adj turned the wrong way, backwards LRC
Old Icelandic: af prep from, from...away GED
afar- adv very GED
afr n.str.masc thin beer made from oats GED
aptr prep back, again GED
aur- pfx very GED/IEW
aur-falr n.str.masc lower socket of spear shaft GED
avar- adv very GED
Icelandic: af prep of, off, from ASD
prófastr n provost, officer ASD
Danish: af prep of TLL
agter n aft TLL
ebbe n.masc/fem ebb ASD
efter prep after TLL
Swedish: akter n aft TLL
av prep of TLL
ebb n.masc ebb ASD
efter prep after TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: af prep from, from...away, since; of GED
afar prep after, according to GED
*afara n.masc descendant GED
afta adv back, behind ASD
aftra prep back, again GED
ufaro prep above GED
Umbrian: ab prep from GED
ap- prep from GED
Old Latin: po- pfx away W7
posinō, posinere vb to put, lay down W7
Latin: ab, abs-, ā- adv/prep/pfx from, away from, after LRC
abrumpo, abrumpere vb to break off W7
abruptus vb.ptc steep, abrupt W7
adpositus adj apposite, suitable, placed near CDC
aperiō, aperīre, aperuī, apertum vb to open LRC
aperte adv openly LRC
appono, apponere, appositus vb to place near W7
Aprilis n April GED
compōno, componere, composui, compositum vb to place, arrange W7
compositio, compositiōnis n.fem composition, arrangement W7
compostus, composta, compostum vb.ptc settled, placed W7
depono, deponere, depositus vb to depose, stop W7
dispono, disponere, disposui vb to arrange W7
expono, exponere, exposui vb to set forth, explain W7
impono, imponere, imposui, impositus vb to put, set up W7
interpono, interponere, imposui vb to place in between W7
oppono, opponere, opposui vb to oppose W7
pōnō, pōnere, pōsuī, pōsitus vb to put, place, lay down W7
positio, positionis n.fem position W7
positivus adj positive W7
positura n.fem posture W7
positus vb.perf.ptc situated GED
post adv/pfx/prep after, behind W7
posterior adj.comp coming after W7
posterus adj coming after W7
praepono, praeponere, praepositus vb to place at the head W7
praepositio, praepositionis n.fem preposition W7
praeposterus adj with the hindside in front W7
propono, proponere, proposui vb to propose, put forth W7
punctum n.neut point, vote, small overture W7
repono, reponere, repositus vb to replace W7
transpono, transponere, transposui vb to put somewhere else W7
Medieval Latin: compostum n.neut a putting together W7
deponere vb to depone W7
praepositus vb.ptc posted in advance W7
propositus adj/vb.ptc open, exposed, accessible W7
suppono, supponere, supposui vb to suppose W7
Portuguese: depois adv after TLL
Spanish: después adv after TLL
punto n.masc point W7
Old French: ab- pfx away from W7
composte n.fem compote W7
provost n.masc provost W7
Middle French: apo- pfx away from W7
compondre vb to compound W7
composition n.fem composition W7
compost n.masc compost W7
disposer vb to arrange W7
expondre vb to expound W7
exposer vb to explain, set forth W7
imposer vb to impose W7
impost n.masc guardian W7
interposer vb to interpose, place between W7
positif adj positive W7
position n.fem position W7
poste n.fem relay station, courier W7
poste n.masc post W7
proposer vb to propose W7
supposer vb to suppose W7
transposer vb to transpose W7
French: compote n.fem compote, stewed fruit W7
depuis adv since TLL
exposé n.masc explanation W7
exposer vb to expose, explain W7
imposte n.masc guardian W7
opposer vb to oppose W7
pastiche n.masc pastiche, imitation W7
pondre vb to lay an egg W7
ponte n.fem action of laying an egg W7
ponte n.masc point (in games); play against bank W7
ponter vb to mark a point (in games) W7
posture n.fem posture, position W7
propos n.masc purpose, intention AHD
Old Italian: porre vb to place W7
posta n.masc relay station W7
posto n.masc courier W7
posto n.masc place at which a soldier is stationed W7
Italian: da prep from, since TLL
dacchē conj since TLL
dopo adv after TLL
pasticcio n.masc pie, pasty, cake W7
postura n.fem place, site, situation W7
Old Prussian: pa- vb.pfx (away) GED
po- vb.pfx (away) GED
Lithuanian: apa-čià n lower part GED
pa- vb.pfx (away) GED
põ- vb.pfx (away) GED
põ prep after, over, on LRC
Latvian: pamazām adv gradually, little by little LRC
Old Church Slavonic: po- vb.pfx (away) GED
podъ prep under, underneath LRC
Albanian: pa prep without IEW
prápë adv again GED
Gheg: pāfrujt adj barren, without fruit LRC
Greek: ἀπαγγέλλω vb to report LRC
ἀπαί adv/prep from, away GED
ἀπο- pfx from, away GED
ἀπό adv/prep from, away GED
ἀπο-τέρω adv further removed GED
ἀποτρόπαιος adj apotropaic LS
apopheugein vb to flee AHD
ἀποφῠγή n.fem apophyge; escape, place of refuge AHD/LS
ἀπωτέρω adv.comp farther GED/IEW
ἄφ adv anew GED
Hittite: appasiwatt- n day(s) after GED
Old Persian: apa prep from, away GED
apara adj other, behind, following GED
apa-taram adv.comp farther GED/IEW
Avestan: apa prep from, away GED
aparam adj other, behind, following GED
aparō adj other, behind, following GED
pa-zdayeiti vb to frighten away GED
Sanskrit: ápa adv away GED
apataram adv.comp farther GED/IEW
ápara- adj later GED
aparám adv later GED
ápākas adv from a distant place GED
paśca prep after, behind W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
perf=perfect (aspect)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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