Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: ar(e)-g̑-, arg̑-?, r̥g̑i-   'white, argent, glittering'

Semantic Field(s): White


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: airget n silver, coin GED
argat n silver, coin GED
Irish: airgiod n silver, money CDC
arg adj white, argent CDC
Welsh: ariant n silver GED
Old English: eorc(n)an-stān, eorcen-stān n.str.masc jewel, precious stone, lit. silver-stone ASD
Middle English: agrimony n agrimony W7
argent n/adj argent W7
argentine adj argentine AHD
argil n argil W7
argu(w)en vb to argue CDC/W7
litharge n litharge W7
English: agrimony n yellow-flowered herb in rose family AHD/W7
argent adj/n silver-white AHD/W7
argentine adj silvery, re: silver AHD
argentite n silver ore AHD
argil n potter's clay AHD/W7
arginine n crystalline basic amino acid AHD/W7
Argive prop.adj/n re: Argos; Argos inhabitant CDC
Argo prop.n Jason's ship Swift (Greek mythology) LRC
Argonaut prop.n Argo crewmember seeking Golden Fleece (Greek mythology) AHD
Argos prop.n historic capital of Argolis CDC
argue vb to declare, dispute AHD/W7
Arkenstone prop.n Thorin's precious stone in Tolkien: The Hobbit LRC
litharge n fused lead monoxide AHD/W7
pyrargyrite n type of silver ore AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old High German: erchan adj right, genuine GED
German: arginin n arginine (amino acid) W7
pyrargyrit n type of silver ore W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: iarkna-steinn n.masc precious stone ASD
Old Icelandic: jarkna-steinn n.str.masc jewel, lit. silver-stone GED
jar-tegn n omen GED
East Germanic  
Gothic: airknis adj good, holy ASD
airkniþa n.fem genuineness GED
Oscan: aragetom adj/n white; silver CDC
Latin: argemōnia, agrimōnia n agrimony AHD
argenteus adj argent ELD
argentīnus adj argentine AHD
argentum n.neut silver, money GED
argilla n.fem argil, white clay W7
Argivus adj re: Argos CDC
Argivus n Argive CDC
Argō prop.n Argo AHD
Argonauta prop.n Argonaut AHD
arguo, arguere vb to argue, disclose, make clear W7
argūtor, argūtari vb.dep to chatter W7
argutus adj clear, noisy W7
Old French: aigremoine n agrimony AHD
argent n argent AHD
argentin adj argentine AHD
arguer vb to argue CDC
Middle French: aigremoine n.fem agrimony W7
argent n.masc silver, money W7
arguer vb to argue, accuse, reason W7
litharge n.masc lead monoxyde W7
French: argent adj/n argent, silver, money
argile n argil CDC
arguer vb to argue CDC
Homeric Greek: ἀργι-κέραυνος adj with bright lightning GED
ἀργός adj white, bright, shining; swift GED
Ἀργώ prop.n.fem Argo, lit. Swift LS
Greek: Ἀργεῖος n.masc Argive LRC
argemōnē n.fem poppy, agrimony AHD/W7
ἀργής adj white, gleaming GED
ἄργιλλος n.fem argil, white clay CDC
Argonautēs prop.n Argonaut AHD
ἀργύρεος adj silver LRC
ἄργυρος n.masc silver, white/bright metal GED
Hittite: harkis adj white GED
Armenian: arcat' n coin, silver GED
Old Persian: (a)rdata n silver GED
Avestan: arəząh n brightness GED
ərəzatam adj silver-colored GED
Sanskrit: árjunas adj bright, silver-white; pure GED
rajata adj/n white; silver CDC
rajatám adj silver-colored GED
Tocharian B: ārkwi adj white GED
Tocharian A: ārki adj white GED
ārkyant n silver GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
ELD=Charlton T. Lewis: An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1999)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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