Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: arqu-   'arc, arch, something bent'

Semantic Field(s): to Bend


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: ar(e)we n.fem arrow ASD/CDC
earh n.str.fem arrow GED
Middle English: arch(e) n arch W7
archer(e), archier n archer CDC/W7
ark n arc W7
arw(e), aro(w), aru(we), arewe n arrow CDC/W7
English: arc n curve AHD/W7
arcade n arched roofed (part of) building AHD
arch n curved liminal frame AHD/W7
archer n bowman AHD/W7
arciform adj arc-shaped AHD/W7
arcuate adj bow-curved AHD/W7
arrow n missile from bow AHD/W7
North Germanic  
Old Icelandic: ǫr, ǫrvar n.str.fem arrow GED
Icelandic: ör n arrow CDC
East Germanic  
Gothic: *arƕazna n.fem dart, arrow GED
Old Latin: arquī n.masc.gen bow GED
arqui-tonens n.masc archer GED
Latin: arcuo, arcuāre, arcuāvī, arcuātus vb to bend like bow W7
arcus n.masc arc, bow; arch, vault GED
arquus n.masc arc, bow CDC
Vulgar Latin: arca n.fem arch W7
Late Latin: arcarius n.masc archer W7
arcuarius adj re: bow W7
Middle Latin: archia n.fem arch CDC
Portuguese: arco n arc CDC
arqueiro n archer CDC
Spanish: arco n arc CDC
arquero n archer CDC
Old French: arc n.masc arc, bow CDC
arche n.fem arch, architectural element of a building W7
arch(i)er n.masc archer CDC/W7
French: arc n arc CDC
arcade n arcade AHD
arche n.fem arch, architectural element of building CDC
archer n archer CDC
Old Occitan: arc n arc CDC
arquier, archier n archer CDC
Italian: arcata n arcade AHD
arciere n archer CDC
arco n arc CDC
Latvian: ẽrcis n juniper GED
Czech: rokyta n kind of willow GED
Russian: rakíta n kind of willow GED
Greek: ἄρκευθος n juniper GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
gen=genitive (case)
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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