Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 4. au-, u- : u̯ē̆-, u̯o-   'other; that (one)'

Semantic Field(s): Like, Similar, to Separate


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: ēac adv/conj eke, and, even, moreover LRC
Middle English: ec, eek, ek(e) adv/conj eke, and CDC
English: auto- pfx self, by itself TLL
auto n car, automobile LRC
automobile n 4-wheel automotive passenger vehicle W7
automotive adj self-propelled W7
eke adv also AHD/W7
ossia conj or else AHD
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: āk, oke conj eke, and GED/ASD
Frisian: (e)ak conj eke, and ASD
Dutch: ook conj eke, and CDC
Old Saxon: ōk conj eke, and GED
Low German: āk, ōk, auk conj eke, and CDC
Old High German: ou(c)h conj eke, and CDC
Middle High German: ouch conj eke, and CDC
German: auch conj eke, and CDC
Auto n.neut auto LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: auk, ōk conj eke, and ASD
Old Icelandic: auk, ok conj eke, and GED
Icelandic: og conj and ASD
Danish: og conj eke, and CDC
Swedish: och, ock conj eke, and CDC/ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: áuk conj eke; but, for, because GED
-u int.sfx/pcl [clause-initial enclitic] GED
Oscan: aut(i) conj but, again GED
Umbrian: ote, ute conj but; or GED
Latin: au adv away GED
aut conj or GED
autem conj but, again GED
sive conj or if, whether...or LRC
-ve conj.sfx or LRC
vel conj either/or LRC
Portuguese: ou conj either, or TLL
Spanish: o conj either, or TLL
French: auto n auto TLL
ou conj either, or TLL
Italian: o conj either, or TLL
ossia conj or else, that is AHD
Old Church Slavonic: ovъ dem.pron this one here, that one there GED
Ionic: αὖτις adv again GED
Greek: αυ pcl again LRC
αὖ adv again, further GED
αὖγε adv again GED
αὖθις adv/conj again; but GED
αὖτε adv/conj then, again; but GED
αὖτιν adv again GED
αὔτις adv again LRC
αὖτις adv/conj again; but GED
αὐτός pron he, oneself LRC
ἑαυτός refl.pron himself LRC
ἑαυτοῦ refl.pron oneself LRC
ἡύτε adv just as GED
οὗτος dem.pron this LRC
οὔτω, οὕτως adv thus LRC
πάνυ adv very much GED
σἑαυτοῦ refl.pron yourself LRC
τοσοῦτος, τοιοῦτος adj/pron such LRC
Old Persian: ava- dem.pfx that, yonder GED
Avestan: ava- dem.pfx that, yonder GED
ută conj eke, and GED
Sanskrit: ava- dem.pfx that, yonder GED
u conj and, also; but GED
utá conj and, but, also GED
conj and, also GED
Tocharian A: oki conj as, and GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
int=interrogative (mood)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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