Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: au̯eg-, u̯ōg-, aug-, ug-   'to augment, increase, magnify'

Semantic Field(s): to Grow


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: Augustus prop.n.masc August, Augustus ASD/W7
ēacen adj/vb.ptc large GED
ēacian vb.wk to abound GED
ēcan, ī(e)can, ǣcan, ȳc(e)an vb.wk to eke, augment ASD/GED
weaxan, wēox, wēoxon, wēaxen vb.str.VII to wax, grow LRC
wōcor n.fem increase, usury GED
wuduweaxe n woodwaxen W7
Middle English: auctorisen vb to authorize AHD
auctorite n authority MEV
auctour n author W7
augmenten vb to augment W7
augur n augur CDC
August prop.n August W7
auto(u)r n author CDC
auxillary adj auxiliary AHD
eken vb to eke, augment W7
ekename n nickname W7
nekename n nickname, additional name W7
waxen, wexen vb to wax CDC
wodewexen n woodwaxen W7
English: auction n public property sale to highest bidder AHD/W7
augend n quantity to which addend is added AHD/W7
augment vb to enlarge, increase AHD/W7
augur n official diviner in ancient Rome AHD/W7
augur vb to predict/foretell (esp. from omens) W7
augury n divination from omens/portents W7
August prop.n 8th month (in Gregorian calendar) TLL
august adj marked by majestic grandeur/dignity AHD/W7
Augustus prop.n 1st Roman Emperor (27 BC - AD 14) TLL
author n writer, composer AHD/W7
authority n expert, original author; citation, testimony W7
authorize vb to sanction, empower, invest with legal force AHD/W7
auxesis n growth AHD/W7
auxiliary adj aiding, offering/providing help AHD/W7
auxin n organic substance able to promote plant growth AHD/W7
eke vb.trans to increase, lengthen AHD/W7
inaugurate vb.trans to begin, induct into office AHD/W7
nickname n descriptive short name/tag AHD/W7
waist n body region between hips and belly AHD/W7
wax vb.intrans to grow (large/strong), increase AHD/W7
woodwaxen n low bushy Eurasian leguminous shrub AHD/W7
British English: authorise vb to authorize LRC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: āken vb.str.past.ptc grown, pregnant GED
waxa vb.str to wax, grow GED
wōker n.str interest GED
Dutch: wassen vb to wax CDC
Old Saxon: ōkan vb.str.past.ptc grown, pregnant GED
ōkian vb.wk to eke GED
wahsan vb.str to wax, grow GED
Old Low German: wahsan vb to wax, grow ASD
Old High German: ouhhōn, auhhōn vb.wk to eke, add ASD/GED
wahsan vb.str to wax, grow GED
wahst n.str.masc/fem growth, stature GED
wuohhar, wuochar n.str yield, gain, fruit, increase ASD/GED
Middle High German: wahsen vb to wax CDC
German: Auktion n.fem auction LRC
Autor n.masc author LRC
wachsen vb to wax CDC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: auka vb.str to eke, add GED
auki n increase LRC
vaxa vb to wax, grow LRC
Old Icelandic: auka vb.str to eke GED
ōkr n.neut interest, usury GED
vaxa vb.str to wax, grow GED
vexa vb.wk to cause to grow GED
vǫxtr n.masc growth, stature GED
Icelandic: vaxa vb to wax, grow ASD
Danish: voxe vb to wax CDC
Swedish: växa vb to wax CDC
East Germanic  
Gothic: *aukan vb.str.VII to eke GED
wahsjan vb.str.VI to wax, grow GED
wahstus n.str.masc size, stature; growth GED
*wokrs n.masc fruit, offspring, increase, interest ASD/GED
Latin: auctio, auctionis n.fem increase W7
auctor n.masc author, promoter, originator W7
auctus vb.perf.ptc increased GED
augendus ger in order to increase W7
augeo, augēre, auxi, auctum vb to eke, increase GED
augmentum n.neut growth, increase, augmentation GED
augur n.masc.fem seer, augur W7
augurium, augurii n.masc augury, interpretation of omens LRC
auguro, augurare vb to augur W7
Augustus prop.n Augustus, a.k.a. Octavian TLL
Augustus prop.n August, 6th month (in Julian calendar) W7
augustus adj/vb.ptc august, noble, exalted; holy, consecrated CLD/GED
auxiliaris adj auxiliary W7
auxilium n.neut help, aid GED
Late Latin: augmento, augmentāre vb to augment W7
augmentum n.neut increase W7
Medieval Latin: auctōrizāre vb to authorize AHD
New Latin: auxesis n.fem growth W7
Portuguese: agosto prop.n August TLL
augmentar vb to augment CDC
augusto adj august CDC
autor n author CDC
Spanish: agosto prop.n August TLL
augusto adj august CDC
autor n author CDC
Old French: au(c)torité n authority MEV
augmenter vb to augment CDC
autor, auteur n author CDC
autoriser vb to authorize AHD
Old North French: auctour n.masc author W7
Anglo-French: autour n author CDC
Middle French: augmenter vb to augment W7
French: août prop.n August TLL
auguste adj august CDC
auteur n author CDC
Old Occitan: auctor, actor n author CDC
Italian: agosto prop.n August TLL
augusto adj august CDC
aumentare vb to augment CDC
autore n author CDC
Old Prussian: aucktai-rikijskan n.acc government GED
auginnons vb.act.past.ptc raised GED
Lithuanian: augìnti vb to bring up GED
augmuõ n growth GED
áugti vb to grow GED
áukštas adj high GED
Latvian: aúgsts adj high GED
augsts adj high, chief LRC
aûgt vb to grow GED
Homeric Greek: ἀ(Ϝ)έξω vb to increase GED
Greek: ἀέξομαι vb to grow GED
Αὐγούστος n.masc Augustus LRC
αὐξάνω vb to increase GED
auxēsis n.fem increase, growth W7
αὖξις n growth GED
αὔξω vb to increase GED
ἀ(Ϝ)έξω vb to increase GED
Armenian: awčan n aid, protection GED
Avestan: aojō n strength GED
ugra- adj strong GED
uχšyeiti vb to grow GED
vaχšaiti vb to cause to grow GED
Sanskrit: úkṣati vb to grow, strengthen GED
ugrás adj powerful GED
ójas n strength GED
ójma n strength GED
vákṣaṇam n strengthening GED
vakṣáyati vb to increase GED
vavákṣa vb.perf grown GED
Tocharian: okar n growth GED
oko n fruit GED
Tocharian B: aukšu adj old GED
Tocharian A: oks- vb to grow GED
oksiš vb to grow GED
okšu adj old GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
VI=class 6
VII=class 7
acc=accusative (case)
act=active (voice)
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
past=past (tense)
perf=perfect (aspect)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CLD=Cassell's Latin Dictionary (1959, rev. 1968)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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