Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: au̯ei-, əu̯ei-?   'bird, avifauna'

Semantic Field(s): Bird


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: bustard n bustard W7
English: auspice n augury observation AHD/W7
avian adj re: birds AHD/W7
aviary n place for confining birds AHD/W7
aviation n heavier-than-air aircraft operation AHD/W7
aviculture n rearing/care of captive birds AHD/W7
avifauna n flying animal(s) AHD/W7
bustard n family of Australian/Old World game birds AHD/W7
ocarina n small wind instrument AHD/W7
osprey n fish-eating hawk AHD
West Germanic  
German: Okarina n.fem ocarina LRC
Latin: auspex n leader, protector, bird augur AHD
auspicium n.neut auspice, divination by bird flight W7
aviarium n.neut aviary, bird cage W7
avis, avis n.fem bird LRC
aviscultura n aviculture CDC
avisfauna n avifauna CDC
Late Latin: auca n.fem bird W7
New Latin: avifauna n.fem avifauna, flying animals W7
Middle French: bistarde n.fem bustard W7
French: auspice n auspice CDC
aviation n.fem aviation W7
oiseau n bird TLL
Old Italian: bistarda n.fem bustard W7
Italian: òca n.fem goose W7
ocarina n.fem ocarina W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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