Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: au̯es-   'to shine'

Semantic Field(s): to Shine, Glisten


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: earendel, earendil n.masc ray, shining light, morning star ASD
eást(a) n.masc the east ASD
eástan, eásten, ēsten adv eastward, from the east ASD
eást(an), eásten adj east, easterly ASD
ēaster-mōnaþ n.masc April, lit. Easter-month ASD
ēastern(e) adj eastern W7/ASD
ēastre n.neut Easter W7/ASD
ēast-we(a)rd adv eastward ASD
Middle English: aureat adj aureate W7
aureole n heavenly crown worn by saints W7
aurora n aurora: dawn AHD
est n east W7
estern, easter adj eastern W7
estre n Easter W7
orfrey n orphrey W7
oriflamble n oriflamme W7
orpiment n orpiment W7
English: Astron prop.n Shire calendar's April in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
aureate adj of golden color/brilliance AHD/W7
aureole n nimbus, sacred radiant light (in art) AHD/W7
auric adj re: gold (esp. when trivalent) AHD/W7
auriferous adj gold-bearing AHD/W7
aurora n dawn; arches/streamers of light in night sky LRC
dariole n small cooking mold AHD
dory n small flat-bottomed fishing boat AHD/CDC
Eärendil prop.n morning/evening star in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
east adv/adj eastward; re: the east W7
east n general direction of sunrise AHD/W7
Eastemnet prop.n eastern Rohan in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Easter prop.n Christian feast commemorating Christ's Resurrection LRC
Easterlings Gondor enemies in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
eastern adj re: the east AHD/W7
Eastfarthing prop.n Shire quadrant in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Eastfold prop.n Rohan district in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Eastlands prop.n Easterling lands in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
eastward adv to/toward the east
eo- pfx oldest, earliest AHD/W7
Eos prop.n goddess of dawn (Greek mythology) LRC
eosin n red fluorescent dye AHD/W7
moidore n former Brazilian/Portuguese gold coin AHD
or n heraldic gold/yellow color AHD/W7
oriflamme n inspirational banner/symbol AHD/W7
oriole n Old World passerine bird AHD/W7
ormolu n brass resembling gold, lit. ground gold AHD/W7
oroide n alloy resembling gold used in cheap jewelry AHD/W7
orphrey n elaborate embroidery AHD/W7
orpiment n orange/yellow arsenic trisulfide (used as pigment) AHD/W7
ostmark n E German monetary unit AHD
Ostrogoth prop.n eastern Goth LRC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: aesta, āsta adv east CDC
Frisian: āsta adv east CDC
Dutch: oost adv east CDC
oosten n east TLL
Old Saxon: ōstan, ōstana adv east CDC
Middle Low German: osten(e) adv east CDC
Old High German: Orendil, Erentil prop.n medieval hero, lit. luminous wanderer IEW
ōstana adv east CDC
ōstar adv to the east W7
ōstarun Easter W7
ōstrōni adj eastern W7
Middle High German: ōsten(e) adv east CDC
German: osten adv east CDC
Ostern n.fem Easter LRC
Langobardic: Auriwandalo prop.n Lombardic prince, lit. luminous wanderer LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: Aurvandil prop.n Prose Edda hero, lit. luminous wanderer ICE
austan adv east LRC
austmaðr n.masc Easterner, Norwegian LRC
Austri prop.n.masc East LRC
Icelandic: austr adv east CDC
Danish: öst(er) adv east CDC
Swedish: öster adv east CDC
Latin: aureolus, aureola, aureolum adj.dim golden, aureate W7
aureus, aurea, aureum adj golden, aureate LRC
aurifer adj producing gold W7
auripigmentum n.neut orpiment W7
Aurora prop.n.fem goddess of dawn W7
aurora n.fem dawn W7
aurum n.neut gold W7
Phrygius adj Phrygian W7
pigmentum n.neut paint, colors to paint with W7
Late Latin: aureatus adj aureate, adorned with gold CDC
Ostrogothi the Ostrogoths W7
Medieval Latin: aureatus adj decorated with gold W7
aureola n.fem aureole W7
aurifrigium n.neut orphrey W7
Portuguese: este adv east CDC
ouro n gold TLL
Spanish: este adv east CDC
oro n gold TLL
Old French: (h)est adv east CDC
Middle French: or n.masc gold W7
orfreis n.fem orphrey, a bird of prey W7
oriflamble n.masc oriflamme, red banner W7
orpiment n.masc an herb W7
French: or n gold TLL
oriol n.masc oriole W7
Italian: oro n gold TLL
Lithuanian: auksas n.masc gold W7
auszra n dawn CDC
auszta n the morning star CDC
auszti vb to dawn CDC
Latvian: aust n dawn CDC
austrums n.masc east LRC
Doric: ἀώς n.fem dawn, morning CDC
Laconian: ἀβώρ n.fem dawn, morning CDC
Aeolic: αὔως n.fem dawn, morning CDC
Homeric Greek: ἠώς n.fem dawn, daybreak, morning LRC
Attic: εγ̓̀ως n.fem dawn, morning CDC
Greek: Ἠώς prop.n.fem Eos LRC
Avestan: ushā n dawn LRC
Sanskrit: uṣās n dawn LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
ICE=Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson: An Icelandic-English Dictionary (1874)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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