Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: au̯o-s   'maternal grandfather'

Semantic Field(s): Grandfather


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: aue n.masc grandson W7
Old English: ēam n.masc uncle ASD/W7
Middle English: uncle n uncle W7
English: atavism n recurrence of ancestral form in organism AHD/W7
avuncular adj re: uncle AHD/W7
ayah n native nurse/maid in India AHD/W7
uncle n parent's brother, aunt's husband AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: em n.masc uncle ASD
Frisian: yem(e) n uncle ASD
Dutch: oom n.masc uncle ASD
Old High German: ōheim n.masc uncle ASD
Middle High German: ōheim, oeheim n.masc uncle ASD
German: Oh(ei)m n.masc uncle ASD
Onkel n.masc uncle CDC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: Ái prop.n.masc Ai, Great-grandfather LRC
Danish: onkel n uncle CDC
Swedish: onkel n uncle CDC
Latin: atavus n.masc ancestor W7
avia n.fem grandmother W7
avunculus, avonculus n.masc.dim maternal uncle, lit. little grandfather CDC/W7
avus n.masc grandfather W7
Portuguese: aia n.fem native nurse/maid in India W7
Spanish: aya n tutor CDC
Old French: uncle, oncle n.masc uncle CDC
French: atavisme n.masc atavism, archaic inheritance W7
oncle n uncle CDC
Provençal: oncle, avoncle n uncle CDC
Italian: aja n tutor CDC
avunculo n uncle CDC
Rumanian: unchiu n maternal uncle CDC
Hindi: āyā n ayah, grandmother W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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