Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. bhā-, bhō-, bhə-   'to shine, glisten'

Semantic Field(s): to Shine, Glisten


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: bān adj white GED
Old English: beācen, bēc(e)n, bēcun n.neut sign, token, beacon CDC/ASD
berie, ber(i)ge, berigie n.fem berry W7/ASD
bīecnan, bēcnian vb to beckon W7/CDC
bōnian vb.wk to polish GED
Middle English: baner(e) n banner MEV/W7
baneret n banneret W7
beken(e) n beacon W7
beknen, becnen, beknien vb to beckon W7/CDC
berie, bery(e) n berry W7/CDC
boye n buoy W7
epiphanie n epiphany W7
fantasie n fantasy W7
fantasme n phantasm W7
fanto(s)me n phantom W7
mulberie, murberie n mulberry W7
panten vb to pant W7
English: banderilla n barbed decorated dart used in bullfight AHD
banderole n long forked flag AHD/W7
bandoleer, bandolier n belt worn over shoulder across chest AHD/W7
banner n staff-hung cloth marking rallying point AHD/W7
banneret n knight leading under his own banner AHD/W7
beacon n signal fire (usually on a high place) AHD/W7
beckon vb to summon via signal AHD/W7
berry n small pulpy fruit AHD/W7
buoy n float AHD/W7
diaphanous adj fine in texture, nearly transparent AHD/W7
emphasis n forcefulness in expression conveying importance AHD/W7
epiphany n feast celebrating Christ's first appearance to Gentiles AHD/W7
fantasize vb to fancy, imagine, hallucinate LRC
fantasy n hallucination AHD/W7
frambesia n yaws: chronic infectious disease AHD
Goldberry prop.n Bombadil's wife in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
gooseberry n spiny European shrub with edible berries AHD
hierophant n priest in ancient Greece AHD/W7
mulberry n tree with edible purple berrylike fruit AHD/W7
pant vb to breathe quickly/spasmodically in labored manner AHD/W7
Phaethon prop.n son of Helios the Sun (Greek mythology) LRC
-phane n.sfx substance having certain quality AHD/W7
phanerogam n spermatophyte, flowering seed plant AHD/W7
phantasm n product of fantasy AHD/W7
phantasmagoria n optical illusion AHD/W7
phantom n apparition, something sensed but insubstantial AHD/W7
phase n state in a recurring cycle AHD/W7
phen(o)- pfx re: observable characteristic AHD
phenomenon n observable fact/event AHD/W7
phos- pfx light, luminous impression AHD/W7
phosphene n luminous impression due to retinal excitation AHD/W7
phot n cgs unit of illumination AHD/W7
phot(o)- pfx light, radiant energy AHD
photon n quantum of light/radiant energy W7
sycophant n parasite, servile self-seeking flatterer AHD/W7
theophany n visible manifestation of deity AHD/W7
tiffany n a kind of sheer silk gauze AHD/W7
British English: fantasise vb to fantasize LRC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: bāken, bēken n sign, beacon CDC
Middle Dutch: bere, beze n berry CDC
Dutch: baak n sign, beacon CDC
bes n.fem berry ASD
bezie n berry CDC
framboos n raspberry TLL
Old Saxon: beri n.neut berry ASD
bōkan n sign, beacon CDC
bōknian vb to beckon CDC
Middle Low German: bere n berry CDC
Low German: bāke n sign, beacon CDC
bōnen vb.wk to scour, polish GED
Old High German: beri n.neut berry W7/ASD
bouhhan, pouchan n sign, beacon CDC/ASD
bouhnen vb to beckon CDC
Middle High German: ber(e) n berry CDC
bouchen n sign, beacon CDC
büenen vb.wk to scour, polish GED
German: Bake n.fem sign, beacon, landmark CDC
Beere n.fem berry LRC
Fantasie n.fem fantasy LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: bākna vb to beckon CDC
ber n.neut berry ASD
Old Icelandic: benda vb.wk to give a sign GED
Icelandic: bākn n sign, beacon CDC
ber n berry CDC
Danish: bær n berry CDC
kirsebær n cherry TLL
Swedish: bär n berry CDC
körsbär n cherry TLL
East Germanic  
Gothic: *bandwa n.fem sign GED
bandwjan vb.wk to indicate, give sign GED
bandwō n.fem sign W7/GED
basi n.neut berry ASD
Latin: Phaethon n.masc Phaethon W7
phantasma n.fem phantasm W7
sycophanta n.fem swindler, informer, sycophant W7
Vulgar Latin: *bandāria n banner AHD
phantasio, phantasiāre vb to fantasize: hallucinate W7
Late Latin: bandum n banner AHD
epiphania n.fem epiphany W7
hierophanta n.masc priest W7
phaenomenon n.neut phenomenon W7
theophania n.fem theophany W7
Middle Latin: *bandaria n banner CDC
bandum n flag, standard CDC
Medieval Latin: bandum n.neut flag GED
diaphanus adj see-through, diaphanous W7
throphania n.fem theophany W7
New Latin: phasis n.fem (lunar) phase, appearance of star W7
Portuguese: bandeira n banner CDC
Spanish: bandera n.fem banner GED
banderilla n.fem banderilla LRC
banderola n.dim little banner CDC
bandolera n.fem bandoleer LRC
Old French: banere n.masc banner W7
baneret n.masc banneret W7
banerolle n.dim little banner CDC
fantasme n.masc phantasm, phantasmagoria W7
ori-flame, orie-flambe n.fem red banner (of Charlemagne) GED
Middle French: bandouliere n bandolier W7
epiphanie n.fem epiphany, apparition of deity W7
fantosme n.masc ghost, phantom W7
pantaisier vb to fantasize: hallucinate W7
French: banderole n.fem banner W7
bandière n banner CDC
bandoulière n bandoleer AHD
ban(n)ière n.fem banner GED/CDC
phanérogame adj seed plant, flowering plant W7
phantasmagorie n.fem phantasmagoria W7
phantasme n.masc phantasm W7
Old Occitan: bandieira, bannieira n banner CDC
Italian: banda n.fem troop, division GED
bander(u)ola n.fem.dim pennant, streamer, little banner W7/CID/CDC
bandiera n.fem banner GED
bando n.masc summons GED
Gheg: bâj vb to do, make IEW
Tosk: bënj vb to do, make IEW
Greek: diaphainein vb to show through W7
διαφανής adj transparent; red-hot LRC
diaphanēs adj diaphanous W7
emphainein vb to indicate W7
emphasis n.fem emphasis, exposition W7
epiphaneia n.fem appearance, epiphany W7
hierophantēs n.masc hierophant W7
sykophantēs adj informer W7
Phaethōn n.masc Phaethon W7
phainesthai vb to appear W7
phainomenon vb.ptc.pass appearing W7
phainomenos vb.ptc.pass appearing W7
φαίνω vb to show GED
-phaneia afx appearance W7
φανερός adj bright, visible GED
φανή n torch GED
-phanēs afx appearing W7
φᾱνός adj bright, glad RPN
phantasia n.fem appearance, imagination W7
phantasioun vb to have hallucinations W7
phantasma n.neut hallucination W7
phasis n.fem (lunar) phase, appearance of star W7
phatazein vb to present to the mind W7
φάω vb to shine, give light RPN
φάως n light RPN
φωνή n.fem voice, sound LRC
phōs, phōtis n.neut light W7
Late Greek: epiphania n.fem appearance, epiphany W7
theophan(e)ia n.fem theophany W7
Medieval Greek: βάνδον n flag GED
Classical Armenian: banam vb to open LRC
Sanskrit: bhā́ti vb to shine, appear GED
bhā́nam n shining, appearance GED
bhā́mas n shine, light GED
bhā́lam n radiance GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pass=passive (voice)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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