Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. bhā-   'to speak'

Semantic Field(s): to Speak, Talk


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: antef(e)n n anthem, antiphon ASD
bannan, bonnan vb to summon ASD/W7
bēn n prayer W7
bōian vb to boast RPN
ge-bann n ban CDC
Middle English: abando(u)nen vb to abandon W7
affabil adj affable AHD
antem n anthem W7
ban n ban W7
bane n banns W7
banishen, banysen vb to banish CDC/W7
bannen vb to curse, summon W7
ben(e) n prayer CDC
bone, boon, boyn(e) n boon, request CDC/MEV/W7
confessen vb to confess W7
defamen vb to defame W7
diffamen vb to defame W7
enfaunt n infant W7
fable n fable W7
faerie, fairie n fay land/realm/people W7
faie, fay(e) n fay W7
fame n fame W7
famous adj famous W7
fate n fate W7
ineffable adj ineffable W7
infamous adj infamous W7
-phonie n -phony W7
preface n preface W7
profes adj having professed one's vows W7
professen vb to profess W7
prophete n prophet W7
symphonie n symphony W7
English: abandon vb.trans to give up, disavow rights/interest AHD/W7
affable adj friendly, pleasant, talkative AHD/W7
anthem n hymn sung responsively/antiphonally AHD/W7
antiphon n psalm/verse sung antiphonally AHD/W7
aphonia n loss of voice and all but whispered speech AHD/W7
apophasis n allusion by denying mention AHD
arriere-ban n king's proclamation calling vassals to arms AHD/W7
ban n order, decree, summons, proclamation LRC
ban vb to curse AHD/W7
banal adj trite, lacking freshness/originality AHD/W7
bandit n outlaw, brigand AHD/W7
banish vb.trans to require to leave country AHD/W7
banns public announcement (in church) of proposed marriage AHD/W7
boon n favor, benefit AHD/W7
cacophonous adj harsh-sounding AHD/W7
confess vb to admit, acknowledge AHD/W7
contraband n illegal/prohibited traffic AHD/W7
defame vb.trans to disgrace AHD/W7
euphemism n subsitute for offensive expression AHD/W7
euphony n sweet pleasing sound AHD/W7
fable n story, fictitious narrative AHD/W7
fabliau n short, coarse, cynical tale in verse AHD/W7
fabulous adj legendary, re: fable AHD/W7
fado n plaintive Portuguese folk song AHD/W7
Faerie prop.n elven land in Tolkien: The Hobbit LRC
fairy n mythical small magic being AHD/W7
fame n reputation, public esteem AHD/W7
famous adj widely known AHD/W7
fandango n lively Spanish/American dance AHD/W7
fantoccini n puppets moved by strings or other devices AHD/W7
fate n destiny, principle by which things happen AHD/W7
fay adj possessed, enchanted LRC
fay n elf, fairy W7
homophone n word sounding like another but different in spelling/meaning TLL
ineffable adj indescribable, incapable of verbal expression AHD/W7
infamous adj having worst kind of reputation AHD/W7
infant n child in earliest period of life AHD/W7
infantry n trained soldiers armed/equipped to fight on foot AHD/W7
-phasia n.sfx speech disorder AHD/W7
-phone n.sfx sound AHD/W7
phone n speech sound considered as mere physical event AHD/W7
phoneme n smallest unit of speech AHD/W7
phonetic adj re: sounds of speech AHD/W7
phon(o)- pfx sound; voice, speech AHD
-phony n.sfx sound AHD/W7
Polyphemus prop.n a certain cyclops (Greek mythology) LRC
preface n eucharistic prayer of thanksgiving AHD/W7
profess vb to take religious vows AHD/W7
prophet n divinely inspired speaker AHD/W7
symphony n consonance of sounds AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: ban, bon n ban CDC
banna, bonna vb to summon ASD
Old Dutch: ban n ban CDC
bannen vb to ban, prohibit CDC
Dutch: bannen vb to banish, exile CDC
Old Saxon: ban n ban CDC
Old High German: ban(n) n ban CDC
bannan vb to command W7
pannan vb to summon ASD
Middle High German: ban(n) n ban CDC
bannen vb to ban, prohibit ASD
German: Bandit n.masc bandit LRC
Bann n.masc ban; spell CDC
bannen vb to ban, banish, avert LRC
Fabel n.fem fable LRC
Infanterie n.fem infantry LRC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: banna, bannað vb to ban, forbid, prohibit LRC
bōn n.fem boon, petition ASD/W7
Icelandic: bann n ban, interdict, prohibition, excommunication CDC
banna vb to ban, forbid CDC
bōn n prayer, petition CDC
Danish: ban(d) n ban, interdict, prohibition, excommunication CDC
bande vb to ban, swear CDC
bön n prayer, petition CDC
Swedish: bann n ban, interdict, prohibition, excommunication CDC
banna vb to ban, chide, reprove CDC
bön n prayer, petition CDC
East Germanic  
Gothic: bandwjan vb to signify ASD
*bannan vb to proclaim, announce CDC
Latin: *adfor, adfārī, affārī vb.dep to accost, address, speak to, say farewell AHD/CLD
affābilis adj affable AHD
confiteor, confitēri, confessus vb.dep to admit, confess W7
diffamo, diffāmare vb to defame W7
effabilis adj capable of being expressed W7
effor, effāri vb to speak out W7
fabula n.fem play, fable, conversation W7
fabulosus adj fabulous W7
facundus, facunda, facundum adj fluent, eloquent LRC
fāma, fāmae n.fem talk, report LRC
famosus adj famous W7
fans, fantis vb.pres.ptc speaking W7
fās n.neut right LRC
Fata prop.n.fem goddess of fate W7
fateor, fatēri vb to allow, admit, acknowledge W7
fatum, fatī n.neut fate, divine utterance LRC
for, fārī, fātus vb.dep to talk LRC
ineffabilis vb.ptc ineffable, impossible to erase W7
infamis adj ill-famed, dishonoured W7
infans, infantis adj/n.masc incapable of speech; infant LRC
Polyphemus n.masc Polyphemus W7
praefatio, praefationis n.fem foreword W7
praefor, praefāri, praefātus vb to say beforehand W7
profiteor, profitērī, professus vb to profess, confess W7
propheta n.fem prophet W7
symphonia n.fem symphony W7
Late Latin: antiphōna n.masc anthem, antiphon W7
apophasis n apophasis AHD
euphonia n.fem euphony W7
professus vb.ptc professed, taught W7
Middle Latin: bannalis adj banal CDC
ban(nd)ire vb to ban, banish, proclaim CDC
bannum, bandum n ban, edict, banishment CDC
Medieval Latin: bannus n.masc ban W7
contrabannum n.neut contraband, against the ban W7
defamō, defamāre vb to defame W7
prephatia n.fem foreword W7
New Latin: aphonia n.fem aphonia, impossibility to make a sound W7
-phasia sfx of speech W7
phoneticus adj phonetic W7
Portuguese: bandir vb to banish CDC
bando n ban, edict, banishment CDC
fado n.masc sad/plaintive folk song W7
falar vb to speak TLL
Old Spanish: bandir vb to banish CDC
Spanish: bando n.masc ban, edict, banishment CDC
hablar vb to speak TLL
Old French: abandoner, abanduner vb to abandon CDC
affable adj affable AHD
ariere-ban n arriere-ban AHD
ban n ban, edict, banishment CDC
banal adj shared by tenants of feudal jurisdiction AHD
banir vb to ban, make known GED
ban(n)ir vb to banish CDC
fable n.fem fable W7
fabliau n.masc fable, popular medieval tale W7
faerie n.fem fay-land, magical power W7
fa(i)e n.fem fay OED
fame n.fem report, fame W7
herban n military service ban (summons) AHD
-phonie sfx sound W7
profes adj having professed one's vows W7
prophete n.masc prophet W7
symphonie n.fem symphony W7
Middle French: abandon n.masc surrender, abandon W7
affable adj affable W7
ban n.masc feudal service W7
banal adj banal, common; re: compulsory feudal service W7
bandon n power, control AHD/W7
banisse vb.ptc banished W7
confesser vb to confess W7
defamer vb to defame W7
diffamer vb to defame W7
enfant n.masc child W7
fable n.fem fable, tale with moral content W7
fameux adj famous W7
fe(i)e n.fem fay W7
ineffable adj ineffable, impossible to tell W7
infanterie n.fem infantry W7
preface n.fem foreword W7
French: arrière-ban n arriere-ban W7
banal adj banal, common, vulgar W7
bannir vb to banish CDC
euphonie n.fem euphony W7
fabliau n.masc fabliau, medieval tale or song W7
fée n.fem fay OED
phonème n.masc speech sound, phoneme W7
Old Occitan: ban n ban, edict, banishment CDC
banal adj banal CDC
Provençal: bandon n ban CDC
Old Italian: infante n.masc boy, foot soldier W7
infanteria n.fem infantry W7
Italian: abandonnare vb to abandon CDC
bandire vb to ban, banish, proclaim, make known CDC/GED
bandito n.masc bandit W7
bando n ban, edict, banishment CDC
contrabbando n.masc contraband W7
fante n.masc infantryman, jack CID/W7
fantòccio n.masc doll, puppet CID/W7
Russian Church Slavic: bajati vb to tell, to heal RPN
Albanian: fat n.masc fate LRC
Greek: antiphōnos adj responsive, sounding in answer W7
ἀπόφᾰσις n.fem denial, negation, apophasis AHD/LS
aphōnia n.fem aphonia W7
aphōnos adj voiceless W7
euphēmismos n.masc figure of speech: improving the sound of W7
euphēmos adj auspicious, sounding good W7
euphōnia n.fem euphony, harmony W7
euphōnos adj sweet-voiced, musical W7
kakophōnos adj cacophonous W7
Polyphēmos n.masc Polyphemus W7
προφητεία n.fem prophecy LRC
προφητεύω vb to prophesy LRC
προφήτης n.masc prophet LRC
prophētēs n.masc prophet, seer W7
symphōnia n.fem symphony W7
symphōnos adj concordant in sound W7
phanai vb to speak W7
-phasia afx speech W7
phasis n.fem utterance W7
φήμη n ominous voice, oracle RPN
phēmē n.fem speech W7
φῆμι vb to say LRC
phōnein vb to sound W7
phōnē n.fem voice W7
phōnēma, phōnēmat- n.neut speech sound, utterance W7
phōnētikos adj of sounds, of voice W7
-phōnia sfx act of sounding W7
-phōnos sfx sounding W7
Classical Armenian: ban n speech, word LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
pres=present (tense)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
CLD=Cassell's Latin Dictionary (1959, rev. 1968)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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