Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: bhāg̑hú-s   'elbow, forearm'

Semantic Field(s): Elbow, Arm


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: bōg, bōh n.masc bough; arm, shoulder ASD/CDC/W7
Middle English: bo(u)gh, bowe, boz(e) n bough CDC
bouline, bowelyne n bowline CDC
bouspret n bowsprit W7
English: bough n tree branch AHD/W7
bow n forward part of ship AHD/W7
bowline n rope used to keep weather edge of square sail taut forward AHD/W7
bowsprit n spar projecting forward from ship's stem AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Middle Dutch: boech n bow CDC
Dutch: boeg n.masc bow ASD/CDC
boeglijn n bowline CDC
boegspriet n bowsprit CDC
Middle Low German: bōch, būch n bow; shoulder CDC
bōchsprēt n bowsprit W7
Low German: boogspret n bowsprit CDC
Old High German: buog n.masc hip, shoulder, upper part of leg/arm ASD/CDC
Middle High German: buoc n.masc shoulder, withers (of horse) ASD/CDC
German: Boleine n bowline CDC
Bug n.masc bow; shoulder, withers CDC
Bugspriet n.neut bowsprit CDC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: bœgr n.masc shoulder LRC
Icelandic: bōglīna n bowline CDC
bōgr n bow; shoulder CDC
Norwegian: bog n bow; shoulder CDC
boglina n bowline CDC
bogspryt n bowsprit CDC
Danish: boug, bov n bow; shoulder CDC
b(o)ugline, bovline n bowline CDC
b(o)ugspryd, bovspröd n bowsprit CDC
Swedish: armbåge n elbow TLL
bog n.masc bow; shoulder ASD/CDC
boglina, bolin n bowline CDC
bogspröt n bowsprit CDC
Old French: bo(e)line n bowline CDC
French: bouline n bowline CDC
Greek: πῆχυς n.masc forearm CDC
Sanskrit: bāhu n arm, forearm CDC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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