Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: bhar- : bhor- : bhr̥-   'burr, stubble; something jutting out'

Semantic Field(s): Brush


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: bairgen n.fem bread GED/IEW
Breton: bara n.masc bread GED/IEW
Cornish: bara n.masc bread GED/IEW
Welsh: bara n.masc bread GED/IEW
Old English: brord n.masc prick, point, lance; blade/spire of grass ASD/CDC
Middle English: brad, brod n brad CDC/W7
brurd n point; blade/spire of grass CDC
burre n burr AHD
English: bearberry n evergreen plant in heath family GED/IEW
borsch(t) n Russian vegetable soup with red beets AHD/W7
brad n thin small-headed nail AHD/W7
burdock n weed with prickly flower-heads ODE
bur(r) n rough prickly seed husk/envelope AHD
Scots English: brod n brad CDC
North Germanic  
Old Norse: broddr n spike W7
Icelandic: broddr n spike CDC
Norwegian: bjørne-ber n blackberry bush GED/IEW
Danish: brodde n frost-nail CDC
burre n burr, burdock ODE
Swedish: björn-bär n blackberry (bush) GED/IEW
björn-hallon n blackberry bush GED/IEW
brodd n frost-nail CDC
East Germanic  
Gothic: *baira-bagms n.masc mulberry tree GED/IEW
Russian: bor n millet GED/IEW
borshch n borsch W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
ODE=C.T. Onions: The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (1966)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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