Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: bhares-, bhores-   'point, bristle, stubble (with formants)'

Semantic Field(s): Point, Hard


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: barr n summit GED/IEW
Old English: bærs, bears n bass, perch AHD/IEW
bursta n.fem bristle GED/IEW
byrst n.fem bristle GED/IEW
Middle English: base, bace n bass CDC/W7
bristil n bristle W7
brust n bristle W7
fastidious adj fastidious W7
English: bass n edible spiny-finned fish AHD/W7
bristle n short stiff coarse hair AHD/W7
farinaceous adj starchy AHD/W7
farraginous adj formed of various materials AHD/W7
fastidious adj scornful AHD/W7
fastigiate adj narrowing toward top AHD/W7
fastigium n period of greatest (disease) intensity AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Frisian: boarstel n.masc/fem bristle ASD
Dutch: borstel n.masc bristle ASD
Old High German: borst n.neut bristle IEW
burst n.masc bristle IEW
bursta n.fem bristle GED/IEW
bursti, pursta n.fem bristle ASD
Middle High German: bürste n brush IEW
German: Barsch n.masc bass LRC
Borste n.fem bristle IEW
Bürste n.fem brush LRC
bürsten vb to brush LRC
North Germanic  
Old Icelandic: barr n.fem conifer GED/IEW
burst n.fem bristle GED/IEW
Icelandic: burst n.fem bristle ASD
Danish: bōrste n.masc/fem bristle ASD
Swedish: borst n.masc bristle ASD
borste n brush TLL
Latin: fastidiosus adj disgusting W7
fastidium n.neut disgust W7
fastīgium n.neut tip, top GED/IEW
fastus n.masc arrogance W7
New Latin: fastigiatus adj narrowing towards the top W7
fastigium n.neut top, summit W7
Sanskrit: bhr̥ṣtís̄ n point, tip, edge GED/IEW


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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