Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: bhardhā   'beard'

Semantic Field(s): Beard


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Cornish: barf n beard CDC
Welsh: barf n beard CDC
Old English: beard n.str.masc beard GED
Middle English: barbe n barb, cutting edge; beard MEV/W7
barbel(le), barbylle n barbel CDC/W7
barber, barb(o)ur, barbor n barber CDC/W7
berd(e) n beard MEV/W7
halberd n halberd, weapon W7
English: barb n hook, thorn AHD/W7
barbel n European freshwater fish AHD/W7
barbellate adj re: short stiff-hooked hair AHD/W7
barber n one who cuts/dresses hair AHD/W7
barbette n shooting platform or earthen mound AHD/W7
barbicel n small hook-bearing process on barbule of feather AHD/W7
barbule n tiny barb AHD
beard n man's lower facial hair AHD/W7
halberd n long-handled pike or battle-axe AHD/W7
rebarbative adj crabbed, repellent AHD/W7
Treebeard prop.n Ent a.k.a. Fangorn in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: berd n.str.masc beard GED
Frisian: berd, bird n.masc beard ASD
Dutch: baard n beard CDC
Old Saxon: barda n beard RPN
Middle Low German: bard n.str.masc beard GED
Old High German: bart n.str.masc beard GED
burst n.str.fem bristle GED
Middle High German: bart n beard CDC
German: Barbe n.fem barbel LRC
Bart n.masc beard ASD
Hellebarde n.fem halberd LRC
North Germanic  
Old Icelandic: barð n.str.masc beard GED
barð n.str.neut edge GED
Icelandic: bart n.neut beard ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: *bards n beard GED
Crimean Gothic: *bart, bars n beard CGo/GED
Latin: barba n.fem beard GED
barbula n.fem little beard W7
Vulgar Latin: barbellus n.masc.dim small beard W7
Middle Latin: barbellus n.dim small barbel CDC
barbus n barbel CDC
Medieval Latin: barbātōr n barber AHD
*barbellus n.dim barbel AHD
barbus n beard AHD
New Latin: barbella n.fem short stiff hair W7
barbellatus adj barbellate CDC
barbicella n.fem.dim dim. W7
Portuguese: barba n beard CDC
Spanish: barba n beard CDC
Old French: barbe n.fem barb; beard MEV
barbel n barbel CDC
barbeor, barbier n barber CDC
Anglo-French: barbour n barber CDC
Middle French: barbe n.fem beard W7
barbel n.masc a kind of fish W7
barbeor n.masc barber W7
hallebarde n.fem weapon W7
rébarbatif adj rebarbative W7
rebarber vb to be repellent W7
French: barbe n beard CDC
barbeau n barbel CDC
barbette n.fem.dim barbette CDC
barbier n barber CDC
rébarbatif adj rebarbative, unwelcoming W7
Old Occitan: barba n beard CDC
Italian: barba n beard CDC
barbiere n barber CDC
Old Prussian: bordus n beard GED
Lithuanian: barzdà n beard GED
Latvian: bàrda n beard GED
Polish: broda n beard CDC
Czech: brada n beard CDC
Serbian: brada n beard CDC
Old Church Slavonic: brada n beard GED
Russian: boroda n beard CDC
Sanskrit: bhr̥ṣṭí- n.pfx point GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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