Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: bhasko-   'heap, bundle, fascicle'

Semantic Field(s): Whole, Much, Many


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle Irish: basc n necklace W7
Middle English: fesse n fess W7
English: fajita n marinated/cooked skirt steak in tortilla AHD
fasces symbolic bundle of rods with ax AHD/W7
fascia n flat horizontal band on building AHD/W7
fascicle n small bundle AHD/W7
fascinate vb to enchant, bewitch, cast spells AHD/W7
fascine n bundle of sticks (used to fill ditches) AHD/W7
fascism n principles held by Fascists AHD/W7
fess(e) n band, broad horizontal heraldic bar AHD/W7
West Germanic  
German: Faschismus n.masc fascism LRC
faszinierend adj fascinating LRC
Latin: fascia n.fem band, bandage W7
fasciculus n.masc.dim fascicle W7
fascino, fascināre, fascinātus vb to fascinate W7
fascinum n.neut witchcraft W7
fascis n.masc fascine, faggot LRC
fascis n.masc bundle W7
Spanish: faja n belt, band, strip AHD
American Spanish: fajita n.dim fajita AHD
Middle French: faisse n.fem fess W7
French: fascine n.fem fascine, faggot of brushwood W7
Italian: fascia n.fem band, bandage CID/W7
fascio n.masc fasces, group W7
fascismo n.masc fascism W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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