Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: bhares-   'barley'

Semantic Field(s): Barley


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Cornish: barliz n barley CDC
Welsh: barlys n barley CDC
Old English: bærlic adj barley-like W7
bere n.str.masc barley GED
bereærn, bere(r)n, be(a)rn n.neut barn, lit. barley-place ASD/W7
Northumbrian: berern, bere-ern n barn, lit. barley-place CDC
Middle English: barly, barlich, berley n barley CDC/W7
bern, barn n barn CDC/W7
English: barley n cereal grass AHD/W7
Barliman prop.n Bree innkeeper in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
barn n farm building (for animals/harvested crops) AHD/W7
farina n fine meal of vegetable matter AHD/W7
farrago n mixture, confused collection AHD/W7
Scots English: barlick n barley CDC
West Germanic  
Old Frisian: ber n barley GED
North Germanic  
Old Icelandic: barr n.str.neut grain, barley GED/RPN
Icelandic: barlak n barley CDC
Norwegian: barr n.neut barley ASD
Swedish: barr n.neut barley ASD
East Germanic  
Gothic: *barizeins adj prepared from barley flour GED
Oscan: far n spelt GED
Umbrian: far n spelt GED
farsio adj re: grain GED
fasiu adj re: grain GED
Latin: fār, farris n.neut spelt, grain GED/RPN
farīna n.fem grain, flour, farina GED
farrago n.fem mixture, mixed fodder W7
farrea adj.fem re: grain GED
Portuguese: farinha n flour, farina TLL
Spanish: harina n flour, farina TLL
French: farine n flour, farina TLL
Italian: farina n flour, farina TLL
Old Church Slavonic: brašьno n food GED
Russian: bórošno n.neut rye flour GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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