Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. bhā̆u- : bhū̆-   'to hit, beat'

Semantic Field(s): to Hit, Strike, Beat


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: bēatan, bēot, bēoton, bēaten vb.str.VII to beat, pound, strike LRC
bīetel, bīt(e)l, bȳt(e)l, bētel n.masc/neut beetle, hammer RPN/ASD/CDC
bȳtla n.masc builder, hammerer ASD
bȳtlian vb.wk to build, construct ASD
*hol-bȳtla n.masc hole-builder LRC
Middle English: abutten adv partly W7
batyldore n bat used in washing clothes W7
beten vb to beat W7
betylle, betel n beetle W7/CDC
bitel, bittill, bytylle n beetle W7/CDC
bitel-browed adj having overhanging brows W7
boton n button W7
butres n buttress W7
butte n flatfish W7
butten vb to butt AHD
buttok n buttock W7
halybutte halibut W7
rebuten vb to rebut W7
turbot n turbot W7
English: abut vb to touch along border AHD/W7
baste vb.trans to thrash, beat soundly AHD/W7
beat, beat, beaten vb.str.freq to strike repeatedly AHD/W7
beetle n mallet, heavy wooden ramming/battering tool AHD/W7
bouton n bud-like swelling, button-shaped object AHD
butt n blow/push with head/horns AHD
butt vb to hit/push with head/horns AHD
buttock n either rounded half of lower part of back AHD/W7
button n small fastening knob/disk AHD/W7
buttress n stabilizing wood/masonry structure AHD/W7
clafouti(s) n French baked-fruit dessert AHD
confute vb.trans to win over by conclusive argument AHD/W7
footle vb to fool, trifle, loiter, waste time AHD/W7
gentlehobbit n noble/gentle hobbit in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
halibut n marine food fish (largest flatfish) AHD/W7
hobbit n halfling in Tolkien: The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings LRC
Holbytla prop.n a.k.a. hobbit in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
rebut vb to repel, beat back AHD/W7
refute vb.trans to overthrow by argument AHD/W7
sackbut n medieval trombone AHD/W7
turbot n large brownish European flatfish AHD/W7
Scots English: bittle, bittill n beetle CDC
West Germanic  
Middle Low German: but n flounder W7
Low German: betel, bötel n beetle CDC
Old High German: bōz(z)an, pōzan vb to beat RPN/ASD
Middle High German: bōzel n beetle CDC
bōzen vb to beat CDC
German: boszen vb to beat ASD
North Germanic  
Old Icelandic: bauta vb to beat RPN
beysta vb to baste, thresh RPN
Icelandic: bauta vb to beat CDC
bey(r)sta vb to baste, drub CDC
Danish: böste vb to baste CDC
Swedish: basa vb to baste, whip, strike CDC
bösta vb to baste, drub CDC
Latin: confuto, confutare vb to check, repress W7
fūstis n stick, staff, club RPN
-futare vb to beat W7
futuo, futuere, futui, futūtum vb to have intercourse AHD
refuto, refutare vb to refute W7
Old French: aboter vb to border on W7
abuter vb to come to an end W7
boterez n.masc projecting rock/architectural structure W7
boton n.masc button W7
bo(u)ter vb to butt, strike, expulse, push out W7
but n.masc end, aim W7
reboter vb to rebut W7
saqueboute n.fem sackbut W7
tourbot n.masc turbot W7
Middle French: boton n.masc button W7
bouterez n.masc masonry structure W7
saqueboute n.fem hooked lance W7
French: bouton n.masc bud, button, bouton LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
VII=class 7
fem=feminine (gender)
freq=frequentative (aspect)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
sg=singular (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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