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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. bhē̆, bhō̆   '(emphatic particle)'

Semantic Field(s): Word


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
West Germanic  
Old Saxon: neƀa conj if not GED
Old High German: iba n.str.fem condition GED
ibu conj if GED
nibu conj if not GED
East Germanic  
Gothic: ba conj.enc.pcl if, even though GED
ibái conj lest, that not GED
ibai int.pcl whether, possibly GED
jabái conj if, even if, although GED
niba, nibái conj unless, except, if not GED
Lithuanian: ba adv for, yes GED/IEW
bà adv indeed GED
bè prep before, without LRC
beĩ conj and LRC
Latvian: ba adv indeed GED
Polish: ba adv indeed GED
Czech: ba adv indeed GED
Old Church Slavonic: bo adv then GED
bo conj/prep for GED
Greek: μέσφα adv until GED
φή adv as GED
Armenian: ba(y) interj.pcl [emphatic] GED
Avestan: bā adv truly, indeed GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
int=interrogative (mood)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin

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