Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Pokorny Etymon: bhē-, bhō-   'to warm, bake, roast, fry'

Semantic Field(s): to Roast, Fry


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: bacan vb to bake W7
bæþ, baþu n.neut bath(s) ASD/CDC
baðian, beðian, beðigean vb to bathe ASD/W7
Middle English: baken vb to bake W7
bath n bath W7
bath(i)en vb to bathe CDC/W7
English: bake vb to prepare using dry heat, esp. in oven AHD/W7
bath n washing/soaking (in water) part/all of body AHD/W7
bathe vb to wash in (usu. warm/hot) water/other liquid AHD/W7
zwieback n an egg-enriched, usually sweet, toasted bread AHD/W7
West Germanic  
Frisian: backe vb to bake CDC
North Frisian: backe vb to bake ASD
Dutch: bad n bath CDC
baden vb to bathe CDC
bakken vb to bake ASD
Old Saxon: bakan vb to bake ASD
baþ n.neut bath ASD/CDC
Low German: bakken vb to bake CDC
Old High German: backen, bacchan vb to bake CDC/W7
bad n.neut bath ASD/W7
badōn vb to bathe CDC
bahhan, pachan vb to bake ASD/W7
Middle High German: bachen vb to bake ASD
bad, bat n.neut bath ASD/CDC
baden vb to bathe CDC
German: backen vb to bake ASD
Bad n.neut bath ASD/CDC
baden vb to bathe LRC
zwieback n an egg-enriched, usually sweet, toasted bread W7
North Germanic  
Old Norse: baka vb to bake, roast ASD
Old Icelandic: bað n.neut bath ASD/CDC
Icelandic: baða vb to bathe CDC
baka vb to bake CDC
Danish: bad n bath CDC
bade vb to bathe CDC
bage vb to bake ASD
Swedish: bad n bath CDC
bada vb to bathe CDC
baka vb to bake CDC
Old Church Slavonic: ubo conj but, now, even, therefore LRC
Greek: phōgein vb to roast W7
Sanskrit: bhaj vb to cook ASD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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